National Geographic : 1960 Apr
NATIONAL 16th & M Streets N.W . National Geographic Magazine Washington 6, D. C. 0Lf~L 0U~~II -C0 0 *5 * 0 0 0 0lliiil~l~, The National Geographic Society is chartered in Washington, D. C., in accordance with the laws of the United States as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowl edge and promoting research and exploration. The Society has conducted more than 160 major expeditions and scien tific projects. It disseminates knowledge to millions through its world famous National Geographic Magazine, its 17 million color maps a year, its books, monographs, bulletins for schools, its information service for press, radio, and television. MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, President and Editor THOMAS W. McKNEW, Executive Vice President and Secretary ROBERT V. FLEMING, Vice President and Treasurer MELVIN M. PAYNE, Vice President and Associate Secretary FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Vice President ROBERT E. DOYLE, Associate Secretary Committee for Research and Exploration LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Chairman LYMAN J. BRIGGS Chairman Emeritus Rear Adm. L. O . COLBERT HUGH L. DRYDEN A. REMINGTON KELLOGG Director, U. S. National Museum and the Senior Officers ALEXANDER WETMORE Vice Chairman Vice Adm. EMORY S. LAND MATTHEW W. STIRLING Research Associate Smithsonian Institution WILLIAM E. WRATHER of The Society Board of Trustees GILBERT GROSVENOR, Chairman of the Board, formerly President, National Geographic Society, and Editor of its magazine (1899-1954) LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director Emeritus, National Bureau of Standards LEONARD CARMICHAEL Secretary, Smithsonian Institution L. O . COLBERT Rear Admiral, U. S . Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired HUGH L. DRYDEN Deputy Administrator, National Aeronautics & Space Administration ROBERT V. FLEMING Chairman of the Board Riggs National Bank CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT President, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Editor, The National Geographic ELISHA HANSON General Counsel National Geographic Society EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired, formerly President Air Transport Association CURTIS E. LEMAY Vice Chief of Staff, U. S . Air Force H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Vice President (Ret.), American Telephone & Telegraph Company BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Editor, the Washington Star President, Associated Press THOMAS W. McKNEW Executive Vice President National Geographic Society MELVIN M. PAYNE Vice President National Geographic Society LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER President, Rockefeller Brothers, Inc., and Jackson Hole Preserve JUAN T. TRIPPE President, Pan American World Airways EARL WARREN Chief Justice of the United States ALEXANDER WETMORE Research Associate Smithsonian Institution LLOYD B. WILSON Honorary Board Chairman, Chesa peake & Potomac Telephone Co. CONRAD L. WIRTH Director, National Park Service U. S. Department of the Interior WILLIAM E. WRATHER Director, U. S . Geological Survey, Retired Assistant Secretaries: VERNON H. BREWSTER, THOMAS M. BEERS, WILLIAM T. BELL, HERBERT T. HENDERSON, C. VERNON SANDERS. Assistant Treasurers: HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, WILLIAM H. McCAULEY. Associate Counsel: ARTHUR B. HANSON Herman J. A . C . Arens, Executive Assistant, and Gail H. Carroll, Secretary to the President and Editor; Lenore Williams, Secretary to the Executive Vice President; Sibyl Peck, Assistant to Chairman of the Board; Leon J. Canova, Administrative Assistant Copyright © 1960 National Geographic Society. All rights reserved. Reproduction or use of the whole or any part of the contents without written permission is prohibited. Printed in U. S. A . Second-class postage paid at Washington, D. C., and at additional mailing offices. Cover design and title protected by international trademark. Articles and photographs are desired. For material used. generous remuneration is made. MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR. Editor THOMAS W. McKNEW. Executive Vice President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH. Associate Editor EDITORIAL STAFF Senior Assistant Editor:Franc Shor Assistant Editors: Robert L. Conly, Allan C. Fisher, Jr., John Scofield, Mason Sutherland Senior Staff: Andrew H. Brown, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Luis Marden, Samuel W. Matthews, Kenneth F. Weaver, Paul A. Zahl (Natural Sciences) Foreign Staff W. Robert Moore (Chief); Thomas J. Aber crombie, David S. Boyer, Walter Meayers Edwards, Howell Walker, M. Woodbridge Williams Issue Editor: Jules B. Billard EditorialStaff Robert T. Cochran, Jr., William P. E. Graves, Jacob Hay, John R. Hoopes, Jay Johnston, Stuart E. Jones, Howard LaFay, Edward J. Linehan, Bart McDowell, Carolyn Bennett Patterson, Peter T. White; Rose T. Mac Bryde, Winifred M. Myers (Assts.); Dorothy M. Corson (Indexes) EditorialLayout: Howard E. Paine School Service: Ralph Gray (Chief); Katherine Crapster, Arthur P. Miller, Jr., Frank Sartwell News Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief); Lonnelle Aikman, Edward Cornish, Matt C. McDade Book Service: Merle Severy (Chief); Paul Jensen, Robert M. McClung, Edwards Park Editorial Research: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Holcomb (Asst.), Werner Janney, Levenia Loder, Patricia Middlemas, Patricia Rosenborg Geographic Research: George Crossette (Chief); Louise F. Althoff, Newton V. Blakeslee Library: Esther Ann Manion (Librarian); Virginia Carter Hills (Asst.), Katharine P. O'Donnell ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF IllustrationsEditor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl Asst. Illus. Editors: Robert L. Breeden, W. E. Garrett, Robert E. Gilka, Leonard J. Grant, Mary S. Griswold, Gilbert M. Grosvenor, Kip Ross, Thomas R. Smith; Charles Allmon (Incoming Photographs). Pictorial Research: Geraldine Linder, Caro Stillwell (Librarian) Artists: Walter A. Weber (Naturalist), Peter V. Bianchi Director of Photography:James M. Godbold Photographers:B. Anthony Stewart (Chief); Dean Conger, Bates Littlehales, Thomas Nebbia, Kathleen Revis, Joseph Baylor Roberts, Robert F. Sisson, W. D. Vaughn, Volkmar Wentzel Photo Lab: Edwin L. Wisherd (Chief); Richard H. Stewart (Asst.); John E. Fletcher, Milton Ford, Donald McBain, Guy Starling. Film Editor: Joseph M. Rideout Engraving & Printing:Dee J. Andella, Joe M. Barlett CARTOGRAPHIC STAFF Chief Cartographer:James M. Darley Assistant Chief Cartographers:Newman Bumstead, Ralph E. McAleer Cartographers: John J. Brehm, Wellman Chamberlin, Richard Darley, Athos D. Grazzini, Apphia Holdstock, Victor J. Kelley, Walter K. Morrison, William T. Peele, Charles L. Stern; Catherine Hart (Asst.) CartographicArtists: Irvin E. Alleman, William Palmstrom SECRETARY'S STAFF Administration: Sheldon Cary, Owen R. Anderson, Thomas L. Hartman, M.D., Raymond T. McElligott, Jr., Stan Jennings, Charles F. Althoff. Accounting: F. Charles Brown, George F. Fogle, Martha K. Allen. Cashier:Frank S. Delk Statistics: Everett C. Brown. Costs: Sargent C. Elliott Procurement:Charles P. Bixel (Director); John P.M.Johnston Payroll: Esther M. Lohrer, Marie S. Edwards Membership Fulfillment: Roy J. Klockenbrink Accounts Records: Della M. Hurt EUROPEAN OFFICE W. E . Roscher (Director) 161-166 Fleet Street, London E. C. 4, England ADVERTISING Director: John F. Connery; Regional Offices-New York: Harley L. McDevitt; Chicago:Leslie R. Gage; San Francisco: Donald F. Mikkelsen; Los Angeles: Jack V. Sheehan 4 COVER: Jet-propelled diving saucer glides through the Caribbean'sblue depths (page 571).