National Geographic : 1966 Feb
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC . SOCIETY -r WASHINGTON, D.C. 7 Organized "for the increase and ~ diffusion of geographic knowledge" The National Geographic Society is chartered in Washington, D. C., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. Since 1890 the Society has supported more than 285 explorations and re search projects, adding immeasurably to man's knowledge of earth, sea, and sky. It diffuses this knowledge through its monthly journal, NATIONAL GEO GRAPHIC; more than 28 million maps distributed each year; its books, globes, and atlases; 30 School Bulletins a year in color; information services to press, radio, and television; technical monographs; and now a nationwide series of programs on television. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, President and Editor MELVIN M. PAYNE, Executive Vice President and Secretary ROBERT V. FLEMING, Vice President and Treasurer FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Vice President and Associate Editor LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Vice President for Research and Exploration ROBERT E. DOYLE, Vice President and Associate Secretary THOMAS M. BEERS, Vice President and Associate Secretary VERNON H. BREWSTER, HERMAN J. A . C . ARENS, WM. T. BELL, HERBERT T. HENDERSON, C. VERNONSANDERS, Associate Secretaries ARTHUR B. HANSON, General Counsel COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Chairman ALEXANDER WETMORE Vice Chairman MELVIN M. PAYNE Vice Chairman Rear Adm. L. O. COLBERT CARYL P. HASKINS A. REMINGTON KELLOGG Research Associate Smithsonian Institution Vice Adm. EMORY S. LAND and the Senior T. DALE STEWART Director, Museum of Natural History Smithsonian Institution MATTHEW W. STIRLING Research Associate Smithsonian Institution JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR. CONRAD L. WIRTH PAUL A. ZAHL Officers of the Society BARRY C. BISHOP, Secretary BOARD OF TRUSTEES GILBERT GROSVENOR, Chairman of the Board, formerly President, National Geographic Society, and Editor of its magazine (1899-1954) THOMAS W. McKNEW, Vice Chairman of the Board, formerly Executive Vice President and Secretary (1932-1962) LEONARD CARMICHAEL Vice President National Geographic Society LEO OTIS COLBERT Rear Admiral, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired ROBERT V. FLEMING Advisory Chairman of the Board and Chairman, Executive Committee Riggs National Bank CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT Chairman of the Board, E. I. duPont de Nemours & Company MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Editor, National Geographic CARYL P. HASKINS President, Carnegie Institution of Washington EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired, formerly President Air Transport Association CURTIS E. LEMAY Former Chief of Staff, U. S . Air Force H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Vice President, American Tele phone & Telegraph Company (Ret.) WM. McCHESNEY MARTIN, JR. Chairman, Board of Governors Federal Reserve System BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY EditorialChairman, Washington Star MELVIN M. PAYNE Executive Vice President National Geographic Society LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER Chairman of the Board, Rockefeller Brothers, Inc., and President Jackson Hole Preserve JUAN T. TRIPPE Chairman of the Board Pan American World Airways FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Assoc. Editor, National Geographic JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR. Former Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research and Development EARL WARREN Chief Justice of the United States ALEXANDER WETMORE Research Associate Smithsonian Institution LLOYD B. WILSON Honorary Board Chairman, Chesa peake & Potomac Telephone Co. CONRAD L. WIRTH Former Director National Park Service U. S. Department of the Interior LOUIS B. WRIGHT Director, Folger Shakespeare Library Asst. Secretaries: OWEN R. ANDERSON, CHARLES P. BIXEL; Asst. Secretary and Asst. Treasurer: HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON; Asst. Treasurer: WM. H. McCAULEY HERMAN J. A . C . ARENS, Executive Assistant, LEONARD J. GRANT, Editorial Assistant, and Judith N. Dixon, Secretary to the President and Editor; Sibyl Peck, Assistant to the Chairman of the Board; Lenore W. Kessler, Secretary to the Vice Chairman of the Board SCOVER: Wide-brimmed derby shades a vendor weigh ing her grapes at Tarija in southern Bolivia (page 177). NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, Editor MELVIN M. PAYNE, Executive Vice President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Associate Editor FRANC SHOR, Associate Editor JAMES M. DARLEY, CartographerEmeritus EDITORIAL STAFF Assistant Editors: Newman Bumstead, James Cerruti, Robert L. Conly, Allan C. Fisher, Jr., Gilbert M. Grosvenor, Kenneth MacLeish, Carolyn Bennett Patterson, John Scofield, Howell Walker Issue Editor: Samuel W. Matthews Senior Staff Lonnelle Aikman, Jules B. Billard, Andrew H. Brown, Wil liam Graves, Stuart E. Jones, Robert P. Jordan, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Howard La Fay, Edward J. Linehan, Luis Marden, Bart McDowell, Kenneth F. Weaver, Paul A. Zahl (Natural Sciences) Foreign Staff W. Robert Moore (Chief); Thomas J. Abercrombie, David S. Boyer, Helen and Frank Schreider, Volkmar Wentzel; Kip Ross (Research) EditorialStaff: Wayne Barrett, Thomas Y. Canby, Rowe Findley, Louis de la Haba, Joanne M. Hess, Werner Janney, Jay Johnston, Elizabeth A. Moize, Frank Sartwell, 0. Mac White; Winifred M. Myers, Betty T. Sanborne (Assts.); Dorothy M. Corson (Indexes); Rosalie K. Millerd (Files); Arnvid Nygaard (Chief Translator); Mary Webster McKinney EditorialLayout: Howard E. Paine (Chief); Charles C. Uhl Book Service: Merle Severy (Chief); Edwards Park (Assoc. Chief); Seymour L. Fishbein (Asst. Chief), Ross Bennett, Anne Dirkes Kobor, Patricia Coyle Nicholson, John J. Putman GeographicArt: Newman Bumstead (Chief); William Palmstrom (Asst. Chief). Artists: Irvin E. Alleman, Joseph E. Barrett, Lisa Biganzoli, Gil bert H. Emerson, Victor J. Kelley, John W. Others, Robert C. Magis, Robert W. Nicholson, Isaac Ortiz. Research: George W. Beatty, Walter Q. Crowe, Dorothy A. Nicholson, Eugene M. Scheel Editorial Research: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Wendt (Asst. Chief), Edith C. Berg, Margery G. Dunn, Mary Ann Harrell, Jan Hol derness, Levenia Loder, Frances H. Parker, Patricia Rosenborg, Eliza beth C. Wagner Geographic Research: George Crossette (Chief); Newton V. Blakeslee (Asst. Chief), Leon J. Canova, Margaret Ladd, Virginia A. LeVasseur, Jean B. McConville School Service: Ralph Gray (Chief); Lea Ridgley Fuller, Arthur P. Miller, Jr., Charles H. Sloan, Janis Knudsen Wheat News Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief); Matt C. McDade (Asst. Chief), Edw. Cornish, Sabin Robbins, Paul G. Sampson; Isabel Clarke (Asst.) Television Service: Robert C. Doyle (Chief); Guy Blanchard, David Cooper Phototypography: Robert C. Ellis, Jr. (Chief); John McConnell (Asst. Chief), Elizabeth L. Donley Library: Esther Ann Manion (Librarian Emeritus); Virginia Carter Hills (Librarian); Margery K. Barkdull (Asst. Librarian), Vera Cassilly, Katharine P. O'Donnell EditorialAdministration: Patricia M. Watkins ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF Illustrations Editor:Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl Asst. Illust. Editors:Robert L. Breeden, W. E. Garrett, Mary S. Griswold, Thomas R. Smith, Charles Allmon (Incoming Photographs) Director of Photography: Robert E. Gilka. Asst. Director: Joseph Baylor Roberts. Chief of Film Review: Richard H. Stewart Photographers.B . Anthony Stewart (Chief); James P. Blair, Dean Con ger, Bruce Dale, John E. Fletcher, Otis Imboden, Bates Littlehales, George F. Mobley, Albert Moldvay, Thomas Nebbia, Winfield Parks, Joseph J. Scherschel, Robert F. Sisson PictureEditors:Lee E. Battaglia, Donald J. Crump, O. Louis Mazzatenta, Charlene L. Murphy, Robert S. Patton, Arthur A. Terry; Geraldine Linder (Asst.) . Librarian: Alan J. Lessel Photo Lab: Edwin L. Wisherd (Chief); Milton A. Ford, Donald McBain, Robert S. Oakes, Claude E. Petrone, Carl M. Shrader, Guy W. Starling PictorialResearch: Walter Meayers Edwards (Chief) Artists: Walter A. Weber (Naturalist), Peter V. Bianchi Engraving& Printing: Dee J. Andella (Chief); Joe M. Barlett, Frank S. Oliverio, William W. Smith CARTOGRAPHIC STAFF Chief Cartographer:Wellman Chamberlin Associate Chief Cartographer:Athos D. Grazzini Asst. Chief: William T. Peele. Base Maps and Revisions: Charles L. Stern (Supervisor); David W. Cook, John F. Dorr, Harry C. Siddeley. Map Drawings: Douglas A. Strobel (Supervisor); John J. Brehm, Robert W. Northrop, Thomas A. Wall. GeographicNames: Richard J. Darley (Super visor); Carol Cunningham Foley, Donald A. Jaeger, Manuela G. Kogutowicz, George E. Stuart. Oceanography: Apphia E. Holdstock. Map Editing: Ted Dachtera (Supervisor); Russel G. Fritz, Richard K. Rogers. Administrative Assistant: Catherine M. Hart SECRETARY'S STAFF Administrative: Edwin W. Snider, Raymond T. McElligott, Jr., Richard E. Pearson. Accounting: Jay Givans, George F. Fogle, Martha Allen Baggett. Cashier: Frank S. Delk. Statistics: Everett C. Brown, Thomas M. Kent. Procurement:J. P . M. Johnston, Robert G. Corey. Payroll and Retirement: Joseph B. Hogan. Membership Research: Charles T. Knee land. Membership Fulfillment: Roy J. Klockenbrink. Promotion: Stan Jennings, E. M. Pusey, Jr., Gordon Young, Phyllis Greene. Personnel: James B. Mahon, Frank A. Holman, Adrian L. Loftin, Jr. Medical: Thomas L. Hartman, M.D . Explorers Hall: T. Keilor Bentley, Curator Director EUROPEAN OFFICE W. E. Roscher (Director), 11 Stanhope Gate, Mayfair, London, W. 1 ADVERTISING Director: Harley L. McDevitt, New York Managers-Eastern:William A. Boeger, Jr.; Asst. Eastern:John R. Weist, New York. Midwestern: William Turgeon. Los Angeles: Jack V. Sheehan. San Francisco: Thomas Martz. Automotive: Joseph T. Feeney, New York. Travel: Robert W. Horan, New York Copyright @ 1966 National Geographic Society, 17th and M Streets N.W., Washington, D. C. 20036. All rights reserved. Reproduction or use of the whole or any part of the contents with out written permission is prohibited. Printed in U.S .A. Second class postage paid at Washing ton, D. C. and at additional mailing offices. Cover design and title protected by interna tional trademark.