National Geographic : 1963 Jul
Powerful Neighbors Join Hands Across the Great Lakes T HE WORLD'S GREATEST concen tration of fresh water dominates the Society's latest Atlas Series Map, Cen tral Canada. From those waters, in large measure, flows the economic success of the region today. The province of Ontario, which the map features, shares a 1,715-mile watery border with the Great Lakes States. Benefits as well as border are cordially shared: The St. Lawrence Seaway, the Soo Locks, and the vast system of Niagara elec tric-power plants typify the historic partner ship of the two nations. Water has shaped this region's destiny since the 17th century. French voyageurs in search of the rich-pelted beaver found the mighty St. Lawrence River-and the five Great Lakes that it drains-a natural canoe highway into the heart of North America. To day ocean-going giants ply the same route, now the great St. Lawrence Seaway, to reach North America's "fourth sea coast," with its scores of inland ports. Indians Resist Smokey the Bear The Seaway's benefits are dramatic: Ship ping a ton of grain from Chicago to England is now cheaper than freighting it overland to New York. Seaway traffic has grown to 36 million tons in an eight-month season, carry ing Minnesota iron ore, Manitoba wheat, Ger man autos, Ethiopian coffee, Malayan rubber. Yet with all its 20th-century commerce and power, the Central Canada-Great Lakes region still offers reminders of days when the Indian was master of the forests. Recently residents of Manitoulin Island in Lake Huron, predominantly Ojibway and Ottawa Indians, opposed a fire-fighting campaign featuring JUST PUBLISHED: an Index for Your SOCIETY MEMBERS who bind their National Geographic maps in the convenient Atlas Folio can now obtain an index of place names around the world-an extraordinary work of the Society's Cartographic Division that multi plies the usefulness of their volumes many times. This 146-page reference volume is identical to the index of the new permanently bound Smokey the Bear-because by tribal tradi tion a bear walking upright symbolizes evil. The new map shows U. S. and Canadian highway development keeping pace with growing waterways. Two years ago Ontario completed its portion of the 4,877-mile Trans Canada Highway by closing "The Gap," a 165-mile stretch between the Agawa River and Marathon. A new bridge spanning the Rainy River at Fort Frances, Ontario, helps tie the Trans-Canada Highway into a 1,700 mile north-south route to New Orleans. Not far from Fort Frances lies the Northwest Angle, a 130-square-mile morsel of the United States hitched onto Manitoba by a boundary making quirk. A new $17,000,000 steel arch across the Niagara River links Ontario's Queen Eliza beth Way with the New York State Thruway. Nearby once stood the Niagara's earliest span, engineered in 1848 by an American who flew the first strands across the torrent by kite. Five insets on the new map magnify two of Canada's most important cities-Ottawa, the national capital, and Toronto, capital of Ontario-as well as three regions vital to the U. S.-Canadian partnership. Inset A depicts the St. Marys River, site of the Soo Canals. Inset B focuses on the Detroit and St. Clair Rivers, connecting Lakes Huron and Erie. Inset C traces the St. Lawrence Seaway's Welland Canal, a water staircase that lifts 25,000-ton ships around the thundering bar ricade of Niagara Falls. Mammoth turbines harness Niagara's power. But an international treaty preserves nature's spectacle: 100,000 cubic feet of wa ter a second must flow over the falls during daylight in the tourist season. THE END National Geographic Atlas Folio National Geographic Atlas of the World, whose 127,000 entries make it the most detailed of any American world atlas. A simple printed key adapts the index to use by Folio owners for quick location of places on their Atlas plates. Cost of the Atlas Folio Index, paper bound, is $2.00, postpaid. Order from Dept. 116, Na tional Geographic Society, Washington 36, D. C.