National Geographic : 1953 Oct
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer IIILLEARY F. IOSKINSON, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Conmmittee SIBYL PECK. Assistant to the President JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President THOMAS W. McKNEW, Secretary VERNON II. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary KURTZ M. HANSON, Assistant Secretary ROBERT E. DOYLE, Assistant Secretary HERBERT T. HENDERSON, Personnel Officer GEORGE C. MARSHALL General of the Arlmy Formerly Secretary of Defense CURTIS E. LEMAY General, U. S . Air Force, Commanding Strategic Air Command LEROY A. LINCOLN Chairman of the Board Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director, National Bureau of Standards, Retired II. RANDOLPH MADDOX President, Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies DAVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer U. S . Department of Agriculture FRANKLIN L. FISHER Illustrations Editor National Geographic Magazine BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of the Board Riggs National Bank ALEXANDER WETMORE Research Associate Smithsonian Institution HUGH L. DRYDEN Director, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics WILLIAM V. PRATT Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired JUAN T. TRIPPE President, Pan American Airways WILLIAM E. WRATHER I)irector, U. S. Geological Survey ELISHA HANSON Lawyer and Naturalist GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of the National Geographic Magazine MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Senior Assistant Editor National Geographic Magazine CHARLES F. LETTERING Consultant and Director General Motors Corporation LLOYD B. WILSON Formerly Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies L. O. COLBERT Real Admiral U. S . Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired 'ERNESTE. NORRIS Retired President Southern Railway Company JOHN OLIVER LA GORE Associate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral, Construction Corps U. S. Navy, Retired; President Air Transport Association THOMAS W. MCKNEW Secretary National Geographic Society ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded sixty five years ago, the National Geographic Society publishes the National Geographic Magazine monthly. All receipts are in vested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys con stantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than 100 scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field work to achieve their objectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizons of the southwestern United States to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus. By dating the ruins of vast communal dwellings in that region, The Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for 300 years. In Mexico, The Society and the Smithsonian Institution, January 16, 1939, discovered the oldest dated work of man in the Americas. This stone is engraved, in Mayan characters, November 4, 291 n. c . (Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200 years anything dated in America, and reveals a great center of early American culture, previously unknown. On November 11, 1935, the stratosphere flight of the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, sponsored by The Society and tlhe U. S. Army Air Corps, reached a world-record altitude of 72,395 feet. Capts. Albert W. Stevens and Orvil A. Anderson took aloft a ton of scientific instruments and obtained results of extraordinary value. A notable undertaking in the history of astronomy was launched in 1949 by The Society and Palomar Observatory of the California Institute of Technology. This project will photomap the vast reaches of space and provide the first sky atlas for observatories all over tlhe world. In 1948 The Society sent seven expeditions to study the sun's eclipse on a 5,320-mile arc from Burma to the Aleutians. A Greek cargo ship slink in the Mediterranean 2,100 years ago was found and raised in 1953 by tle National Geographic Society-Calypso Marine Expedition led by Conmmandant J.-Y . Cousteau of the French Navy. The National Geographic Society and the Royal Ontario Museum in 1951 explored and measured newly found Chubb meteor crater, 11,500 feet in diameter, in northern Quebec. The Society and individual members contributed $100,000 to help preserve for the American people the finest of Cali fornia's sequoias, the Giant Forest in Sequoia National Park. One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems out side tlie polar regions was discovered in Alaska and Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration in 1938. EXECUTIVE STAFF OF NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE Senior Assistant Editor IELVILLE BhELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editors FREDERICK (. VOSBURGHI LEO A. BORAH 1'. BARROWS COLTON MASON SUTHERLAND (EOIRGE W. LONG Editorrial Staff ANDREW II. BROWN RoB ERT IESLIE C ONLY B EVERLEY I. BowIE LONNIELLE AIKMAN STUART E. JONES ALLAN C. FISHER, JR. LEONARD J. GRANT KENNETH F. WEAVER JOHN R. lHOOPE' ROSE T. MA'BRYDE, Administ Foreign Editorial Staff W. ROBERT MoonRE, Chief LUIS GARDEN FRANC SHORT HOWELL WALKER Editorial Research INEZ B. RYAN, Chief MARGARET G. BLEDSOE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, ASSOCIATE EDITOR Chief Cartographer JAMES M. DARLEY CartographicStaff NEWMAN BU.MJSTEAD, Asst. Chief CHARLES E. RIDUIFORD WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN ATHOs D. GRAZZINI JOHN J. BREHM RALIPH E. \ICALEER APPHIA IIOLDSTOCK RICHARD iARLEY School Service RALPH GRAY, Chief WILLIAM A. KINNEY RI News Service WINDSOR P. BOOTH, Chief NATHANIEL T. KENNEY ration SAMUEL W. 1'ATrTHEWS Ceographic Research (EORGE CROSSETTE . Adertising GILI.ERT G. LA GORUt:, Director Staff .1 rtist and Naturalist WALTER A. WEBER Librarian ESTHER ANN MANION Illustrations Editor FRANKLIN I. FISHER Assistant Illustrations Editor WALTER MI. EDWARDS Illustrations Staff KI IRoss ANDREW POGOENPOHL EDWARD C. IFERRIDAY, JR. DIEE JAMES ANDELLA IIERBERT S. WILBURN. JR. ROBERT .1. REYNOLDS CAROLSTILLWELL, ,ibrarian PIholographic Laboratory EDWIN L. WIs IERD, Chief CHARD II. STEWART, Asst. Chief NEWTON V. BLAKE.SLEE Staff l'hotooraphers B. ANTHONY STEWART VWILLARDR. CULVER .. BAYLOR ROBERTS VOLKM.AR W'ENTZEL ROBElR F. SISSON JoHN E. FI .ETc'rER DONALD MCBAIN D)AVID S. BOYER Film Editor JOSEPH M. RIDEOUT I1 Copyright. 1953, by National Geographic Society.Washington, D. C. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservado todos los derechos. Printed in U. S. A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington. D. C.. as Second Clhss Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103,. Act of October 3. 1917. authorized July 1. 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.