National Geographic : 1944 Jul
The National Geographic Magazine Mountains, Bolshoi Kavkaz; Cologne, Kiln; Lake Constance, Boden See; Copenhagean, Kbenhavn; Corfu, Kerkyra; Corinth, Korinthos; Corsica, Corse; Crete, Krete; Crimea, Krim; Damascus, Damas; Danube River;* Dardanelles, Canakkale Bogazi; Dead River, Nahr el Mifjir; Dead Sea, Bahret Lut; Devil's Island, Ile du Diable; Dublin, Baile Atha Cliath; East Cape, Mys Dezhneva; Euphrates River, Euphrate (Syria), Frat or Firat (Turkey); Faeroes, Faer0erne; Florence, Firenze; Formosa, Taiwan; Geneva, Geneve; Genoa, Genova; The Hague, 's Gravenhage; Harbin, Pinkiang; Havana, Habana; Hook of Holland, Hoek van Holland; Korea, Chosen; Kurile Islands, Chishima Retto; Limerick, Luimneach; Gulf of Lions, Golfe du Lion; Lisbon, Lisboa; Marcus Island, Minami Tori Shima; Mexico City, Mexico, Distrito Federal; Milan, Milano; Moscow, Moskva; Mozambique, Mocam bique; Mukden, Shenyang; Munich, Miinchen; Nansei Islands, Ryukyu Retto; Naples, Napoli; New Siberian Islands, Novo Sibirskie Ostrova; North Cape, Nordkapp; Mount Olympus, Olympos; Port Arthur, Ryojun; Prague, Praha or Prag; Rhodes, Rodi; Gulf of Riga, Rigas Jiiras Licis; Rome, Roma; Salonika, Thessalonike; Sardinia, Sardegna; Sicily, Sicilia; Mount Sinai, Gebel Mfisa; Sofia, Sofiya; Sparta, Sparta; Tiber River, Fiume Tevere; Turin, Torino; Tyre, Sour; Venice, Venezia; Mount Vesuvius, Vesu vio; Vienna, Wien; Warsaw, Warszawa; White Sea, Beloe More. Key to Foreign Names for Physical Features In many countries words descriptive of physical features (islands, capes, mountains, etc.), are frequently used as part of the geo graphic name, thus: Ostrov Graham Bell (Russian) Chichi Jima (Japanese) Ben Lomond (Scot tish) Bohmer Wald (German) Poluostrov Kamchatka (Russian) Musa Dagh (Turkish) Erz Gebirge (German) Matterhorn (German) Bakony Hegysig (Hungarian) Samarica Planina (Yugoslavian) Lyso Gory (Polish) Hsingan Shan (Chinese) Nanga Parbat (Hindustani) Fujisan (Japanese) Ozero Ilmen (Russian) IJssel Meer (Dutch) Tuz Goiil (Turkish) Hammarsjon (Swedish) Lago di Garda (Italian) Chosen Kaikyo (Japanese) Vatna Jokull (Icelandic) Setesdal (Norwegian) Marmara Denizi (Turkish) Graham Bell Island Chichi Island Mount Lomond Bohmer, or Bohemian, Forest Kamchatka Peninsula Musa Mountain Erz or Ore Mountains Matter Peak Bakony Mountains Samarica Mountains or Plateau Lyso Mountains Hsingan Mountains Nanga or Bare Mountain Mount Fuji Lake Ilmen IJssel Lake Tuz Lake The Hammar Lake Lake of Garda Chosen Strait Vatna Glacier Setes Valley Sea of Marmara Official Spellings Frequently Change On the new "Map of Germany and Its Ap proaches," as on many other NATIONAL GEO- GRAPHIC maps, is a list giving English transla tions for foreign-language names of rivers, seas, harbors, mountains, etc. Comparison of various editions of GEO GRAPHIC maps and indexes shows occasional changes in spelling and sometimes complete changes in place names. These differences mean that countries have officially changed the spelling themselves, or that they have offi cially renamed places. Invariably such action follows transfers of territory from one coun try to another. For example, Memel was taken from Ger many after the First World War and given to Lithuania, which renamed it Klaipeda. Now it is under German rule again, and the name of Memel has been restored. In Alsace-Lorraine, under German rule, the "o" in Strasbourg was dropped and an "s" added. When these provinces were restored to France after World War I, the French lost no time in dropping an "s" and putting the "o" back into Strasbourg. One battleground in Flanders became famous in World War I as Ypres, although overseas soldiers never quite mastered the pronunciation and called it "Wipers." Since the town is in that part of Belgium dominated by Flemish-speaking people, the populace re sented the French spelling of Ypres almost as much as they were amused at the soldier-boy pronunciation. Officially, therefore, that his toric spot is known by its Flemish name of leper. Again, Flemish influence insists on Antwerpen instead of the French designation, Anvers, or the anglicized version, Antwerp. The National Geographic Society's series of ten large ten-color European maps since the beginning of World War I follows: "Central Europe and the New Balkan States," August, 1914. This map shows the changed boundaries resulting from the bloody wars of 1912 and 1913 in which Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro, Romania, Greece, and Turkey took part. The status of these coun tries prior to this conflict was shown in "Coun tries Bordering the Mediterranean Sea," NA TIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE map supple ment, January, 1912. "Europe and Adjoining Portions of Africa and Asia," July, 1915. Shows boundaries at beginning of World War I. "Races of Europe and Adjoining Portions of Asia and Africa," December, 1918. With a graphic 94-page illustrated description of * The Danube River is excepted because its spell ing changes as it flows through or forms boundaries of various countries, as follows: Donau, Germany; Duna, Hungary; Dunaj, Slovakia; Dunav, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia; and Duna~rea, Romania.