National Geographic : 1931 May
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGS SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON, D. C . GILBERT GROSVENOR, President JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President O. P. AUSTIN, Secretary GEO. W. HUTCHISON, Associate Secretary JOHN JOY EDSON, Treasurer HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer FREDERICK V. COVILLE, Chairman Committee on Research EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor J. R . HILDEBRAND Assistant Editor FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division ALBERT H. BUMSTEAD Chief Cartographer JOHN JOY EDSON Chairman of the Board, Wash ington Loan & Trust Company DAVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer, U. S. Department of Agriculture C. HART MERRIAM Member National Academy of Sciences O. P . AUSTIN Statistician GEORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner U. S. Bureau of Lighthouses THEODORE W. NOVES Editor of The Evening Star GEORGE K. BURGESS Director U. S . Bureau of Standards RAYMOND S. PATTON Director U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey RALPH A. GRAVES Assistant Editor WILLIAM JOSEPH SHOWALTER Chief Research Division MAYNARD OWEN WILLIAMS Chief Foreign Editorial Staff FREDERICK SIMPICH Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Asst. Chief Illustrations Division CHARLES MARTIN Chief Photographic Laboratory BOARD OF TRUSTEES CHARLES EVANS HUGHES CALVIN COOLIDGE Chief Justice of the United States Formerly President of the United Sttate JOHN J. PERSHING General of the Armies of the United States C. M. CHESTER Rear Admiral U. S. Navy, Formerly Supt. U . S. Naval Observatory J. HOWARD GORE Prof. Emeritus Mathematics, The George Washington University FREDERICK V. COVILLE Botanist, U. S. Department of Agriculture GEORGE SHIRAS, 3D Formerly Member U. S . Con gress, Faunal Naturalist and Wild-Game Photographer JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE Associate Editor National Geo graphic Magazine ROBERT V. FLEMING President Riggs National Bank CHARLES G. DAWES American Ambassador to Great Britain JOHN BARTON PAYNE Chairman American Red Cross A. W . GREELY Arctic Explorer, Major General U. S. Army GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of National Geographic Magazine GEORGE OTIS SMITH Chairman Federal Power Commis sion O. H . TITTMANN Formerly Superintendent U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey JOHN FOOTE, M. D. Dean and Professor of Pediatrics, Georgetown University ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" TO carry out the purposes for which it was founded forty-three years ago the National Geographic Society publishes this Magazine monthly. All receipts are invested in the Magazine itself or ex pended directly to promote geographic knowledge. ARTICLES and photographs are desired. For material which the Magazine can use, generous remuneration is made. Contributions should be accompanied by addressed return envelope and postage. IMMEDIATELY after the terrific eruption of the world's largest crater, Mt. Katmai, in Alaska, a National Geographic Society expedition was sent to make observations of this remarkable phenom enon. Four expeditions have followed and the ex traordinary scientific data resulting given to the world. In this vicinity an eighth wonder of the world was discovered and explored-" The Valley of Ten Thou sand Smokes," a vast area of steaming, spouting fissures. As a result of The Society's discoveries this area has been created a National Monument by proclamation of the President of the United States. AT an expense of over $50,000 The Society sent a notable series of expeditions into Peru to investigate the traces of the Inca race. Their discoveries form a large share of our knowledge of a civilization waning when Pizarro first set foot in Peru. THE Society also had the honor of sub scribing a substantial sum to the expedition of Admiral Peary, who discovered the North Pole, and contributed $55,000 to Admiral Byrd's Antarctic Ex pedition. NOT long ago The Society granted $25,000, and in addition $75,000 was given by individual members to the Government when the congressional appropriation for the purpose was insufficient, and the finest of the giant sequoia trees of California were thereby saved for the American people. THE Society's notable expeditions to New Mexico have pushed back the historic hori zons of the Southwestern United States to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus crossed the At lantic. By dating the ruins of the vast communal dwellings in that region The Society's researches have solved secrets that have puzzled historians for three hundred years. The Society is sponsoring an ornithological survey of Venezuela. TO further the study of solar radiation in re lation to long range weather forecastings, The Society has appropriated $65,000 to enable the Smith sonian Institution to establish a station for six years on Mt. Brukkaros, in South West Africa. Copyright, 1931, by National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C. International copyright secured. All rights reserved. Entered at the Post Office at Washington, D. C ., as Second-Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mail ing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July 1, 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.