National Geographic : 1913 Feb
Photo by George C. Martin LUPINES GROWING THROUGH THE ASH NEAR KODIAK solar radiation, as the sky seemed to be quite too poor for such work. About the 25th of June a cloudy pe riod began, with rain, and after this, of course, we expected that all these curious sky phenomena would have passed away ; but not so, for when the clouds had quite passed by, about the 29th of June, we found that the whole sky was filled with haze, and this state of affairs continued even more pronounced until the expedi tion left Algeria, about September 1o. For a long time I supposed the hazi ness was local, but in August a letter from Mr. Fowle told me that at Mount Wilson also the same conditions pre vailed, and the presumption was that they were world-wide. I then recalled reading in an American paper of the volcanic eruption at Mount Katmai, and turning to the paper, which fortunately had not been destroyed, I saw that the magnitude of the eruption must have been very great, and was perhaps the cause of the phenomena which we had observed. On my return to America I found the matter even more certain, for Professor Kimball, of the Weather Bureau, re ported a great increase of haziness at Mount Weather, Virginia, beginning on June io. European journals also began to be filled with notices of an extraor dinary haziness which had prevailed throughout the summer in Europe. THE DUST TRAVELED 25 TO 40 MILES AN HOUR Assuming these effects to have been due to the volcano in Alaska, it is inter esting to note the rate at which the dis turbances were propagated. Mr. Kimball noted the effect at Mount Weather, Vir ginia, 3,700 miles from Katmai, on June 10 and II. The writer noted effects in Algeria on June 19, but the observations seemed to indicate that they were be coming appreciable as early as the morn ing of June 17. This was at a distance of 6,000 miles.* The first observations of Mr. Fowle were noted on June 21 at Mt. Wilson, distant 2,500 miles from Mount Katmai. The rates of propagation then were roughly as follows: Toward Washington, 40 miles per hour; toward Bassour, 25 miles per hour; toward Mount Wilson, 3 miles per hour. The great delay in reaching Mount Wilson was doubtless because the prevailing winds in the higher atmosphere have a course from westerly * By shortest course directly over the North Pole. It is probable that the actual course was much longe'