National Geographic : 1917 Oct
ment of the Empire deposed the reigning Khedive, on the ground that he had adhered to the King's enemies. The British protectorate has been recognized by France. The new Egyptian flag of red has three white crescents, with the horns toward the fly, and each con taining a five-pointed white star. This flag was the personal standard of the Khedive and now takes the place of the former national flag, which was distinguished from the Turkish by having a star of five instead of six points. 955. The flag of British East Africa is the national banner of the Empire, bearing upon the intersection of the crosses a red lion, ram pant, or aggressively walking forward on his hind legs. A passant lion, as shown in 917, is one walking ahead on all fours, with right paw uplifted; encircled by a wreath. 956. Armed vessels of the British East Africa Company carry the blue ensign of Britain, with the red lion of East Africa on the fly. 957. The East Africa merchant flag is of the familiar red ensign type, with the red lion, rampant, in a white disk on the fly. 958. The Somaliland Protectorate in East Africa has an area of about 68,ooo square miles; its population is about 300,000, mostly nomadic, almost entirely Mohammedan. The badge of the protectorate bears the head and shoulders of a Kudu, one of the antelopes of that region. 959. The Nyassaland Protectorate, which was formerly known as British Central Africa, with an area of 39,000 square miles and a popu lation of 1,1oo,oco, has a badge which shows a tree on a diagonal yellow, white, and black background. 960. Nigeria, with approximately 336,000 square miles, an area as large as New England and Texas together, has a population of about 17,000,000. In 1900ooa proclamation was issued which, without abolishing domestic slavery, de clared all children born after January I, 1900, free; it also forbade the removal of domestic slaves for sale or transfer. The badge of this protectorate has a red field, upon which are imposed two interlocked triangles in the form of a six-pointed star. In the center is the crown of the British Empire. 961, 962, 963. An elephant in front of a palm tree, with mountains in the background, forms the device of the badge of West Africa, with the initials "G" for Gambia, "S. L." for Sierra Leone, and "G. C ." for Gold Coast, mak ing the badge representative of each of the subdivisions of West Africa. 964. St. Helena has a badge which shows an Indian merchantman on a green sea, steer ing between two high cliffs. St. George's cross on the ensign of the ship is reminiscent of days long ago. 965. The Governor General of the Union of South Africa flies the national flag of the Brit ish Empire, with the coat-of-arms of South Africa in the center. 966. The badge of the Union of South Af rica consists of a shield quartered and showing the figure of Hope for Cape Colony, two gnus for Natal, an orange tree for the Orange Free State, and a trek wagon for the Transvaal. The gnus and the orange tree are on gold, and Hope and the wagon on red and green respect ively. The crest is a lion and the supporters antelopes; the motto, "In union there is strength." 967. The Union of South Africa has as its official flag the blue ensign of Great Britain, with the coat-of-arms, as described in 966, on the fly. 968. The merchant flag of the Union of South Africa, which is made up of Cape Col ony, Natal, Transvaal, and Orange Free State, is the red ensign of Britain, bearing the Union's coat-of-arms in a white disk on the fly. 969. The badge of the Cape of Good Hope shows a shield bearing on red a golden lion, rampant, and supported by a gnu and an ante lope. On a scroll below the shield is "Good Hope" in Latin. 970. The badge of Natal shows two gnus, the odd-looking African antelopes, with the imperial crown above. The export of gnu hides is an. important industry in Natal, and the number of these animals has been greatly reduced by hunting. 971. The Orange River Colony, before it became the Orange Free State of the Union, had on its badge a springbok in alert attitude. 972. Before the formation of the South Af rican Union the badge of the Transvaal showed a lion, couchant, resting on the veldt. 973. Rhodesia's badge has a blue field, with a golden lion grasping an elephant's tusk in its right paw. The name of this colony, as well as the letters B. S. A. C. appearing below its device, recalls the means by which this region was secured and developed for Great Britain, namely, Cecil Rhodes' British South Africa Company. 974. The High Commissioner of South Af rica has as his badge a blue disk with the ini tials S. A. H. C. and a crown above. 975. This shows the wreath used around the badges of the colonial possessions when imposed upon the union jack, at the intersec tion of the crosses, to betoken the presence of the colonial representative on the ship flying it. There are a few notable exceptions-the wreath around Canada's badge is not the regu lation laurel, but is made of maple leaves (see 869); that around New Zealand's badge con sists of two fern leaves (see go9) ; the Union of South Africa has a wreath of mimosa (see 956), while India's star is circled by the garter which in turn is surrounded by the blazing rays of a sun (see 947). When the badges are used on the blue and red ensigns they are not sur rounded by wreaths, except in the case of the blazing sun of India. 976. The badge of military officers afloat, as, for instance, when crossing the English Channel, or when going to the Saloniki front, has a blue field, upon which are inscribed in gold the initials "G. R." (George Rex), sur mounted by the crown of the Empire. 977-986. These flags are used by the various British officials.