National Geographic : 2013 Mar
Photos, from toP: ComstoCk Images/getty Images; Peter Dazeley, getty Images; englIsh sChool/BrIDgeman art lIBrary/getty Images NEXT | EXplorErs Quiz Medicine’s Miraculous explorers move over, st. Polycarp, make room for st. anesthesia and st. antiseptic. medical discoveries have so changed our lives that Winston Churchill felt we should have feast days to honor them. In that spirit, this quiz honors miracle workers on medicine’s frontiers. 1. this quiz is the second of seven to run in 2013 to celebrate national geographic’s 125th anniversary. the next appears in may. e x plore fInD ansWers on Page 27. ✂CUthere What is the earliest knoWn human surgery in the archaeological record? A. Cutting out an enemy’s heart B. Prehistoric skull surgery C. Fixing broken bones D. Birth by cesarean section What Was the first successful chemother apy drug? A. Salvarsan, an arsenic compound B. Mechlorethamine, cousin to mustard gas C. Vin- cristine, from the Madagascar (or rosy) periwinkle D. Tamoxifen, for breast cancer 2. in 1796 edWard Jenner pioneered the use of vaccination Who performed Whose pioneering Work With antiseptic procedures made him the “savior of mothers”? A. William Hunter, 18th-century “physi- cian extraordinary” to Britain’s Queen Charlotte B. Joseph Lister, surgeon and namesake of Listerine C. Louis Pasteur, namesake of pasteurized milk D. Hun- garian grocer’s son Ignaz Semmelweis 4. 3. tion of smallpox in What year? A. Britain’s Colonial Medical Service completed eradication in 1895. B. U.S. Army M.D. Walter Reed treated the last case in 1900. C. Napoleon made vaccination mandatory, leading to eradication in 1810. D. The last naturally occurring case was in Somalia in 1977. general anesthesia? A. Johns Hopkins surgical pioneer William Stewart Halsted B. Hanaoka Seishu, in Edo period Japan C. John H. Gibbon, Jr., inventor of the heart-lung machine D. Swiss-born 16th-century physician and chemist Paracelsus. in 1940, as the Battle of Britain raged overhead, oxford university re- searchers scrambled to save What medical discovery? A. A prototype polio vaccine B. A new heart medicine that would soon save Churchill’s life C. The anti- biotic penicillin D. A tubercu- losis cure the first breast cancer sur- gery using 6. to prevent disease, leading to the eradica- 5.