National Geographic : 2012 Nov
Cordillera de Guaniguanico FloridaKeys Isla de la Juventud Straits of Florida Gulf of Mexico Caribbean Sea (Bay of Pigs) Bahía de Cochinos MATANZAS VILLA CLARA LA HABANA CIENFUEGOS ISLA DE LA JUVENTUD ARTEMISA MAYABEQUE PINAR DEL RIO C U Key West Miami Matanzas Artemisa Havana Cienfuegos Santa Clara Nueva Gerona Pinar del Río San José de las Lajas San Antonio de los Baños Mariel Varadero Punta del Este María la Gorda Trinidad Camarioca Viñales REPSOL (Spain): abandoned May 2012 REPSOL (Spain): first exploratory well June 2004 PETRONAS (Malaysia) and GAZPROM (Russia): drilling summer 2012 PDVSA (Venezuela): drilling summer 2012 FLORIDA (UNITED STATES) Official routes 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Number of emigrants 50,000 100,000 150,000 Unofficial routes 0 $240 million $2.3 billion ESTIMATED REMITTANCES TO CUBA Oil International partners are searching for oil offshore---esti- mates of reserves range from 5-9 billion barrels. Cuba currently depends on oil from Venezuela. Proximity to U.S. Tens of thousands of people have risked the 90-mile journey to South Florida. 1960 Operation Pedro Pan transports unaccompanied children to the U.S. 1980 Mariel boatlift: Castro allows Cubans to flee via port of Mariel. Postrevolutionary emigration and remittances 1993 Cuba legalizes use of U.S. currency. 1994 U.S. allows 20,000 Cubans to enter legally each year. 2004 U.S. restricts transfer of money to Cuba. 2009 U.S. eases restrictions on monetary transfers. CUBANS OUT, DOLLARS IN Among the most reliable sources of hard currency are the billions in remittances flowing in from the Cuban diaspora and the more than two billion dollars spent annually by tourists. The number of people leaving the island each year fluctuates with the twists and turns of politics and policy. 1965-1973 Twice daily Free- dom Flights bring more than 250,000 Cubans to Miami. Exploratory oil well Air Sea Tobacco- growing area International ports of entry 0mi 25 0km 25 Cuban native and NGS cartographer Juan Valdés narrates an emigration time line.