National Geographic : 2011 Feb
Grove, and on the sandy bottom 20 or so miles out to sea from Pensacola lies an entire aircra carrier, the U.S.S. Oriskany---the largest ship in the world intentionally sunk as an arti cial reef. Dozens of World War II cargo vessels known as Liberty ships have been submerged, or to use the proper jargon, deployed, all along the Gulf, Atlantic, and Paci c coasts. People around the world have long known that shipwrecks are prime fishing sites, and since at least the 1830s, American shermen purposely built arti cial reefs out of interlaced logs. In our own time the materials of do-it- yourself reefs have tended to be castaway junk: old refrigerators, shopping carts, ditched cars, out-of-service vending machines. Pretty much Stephen Harrigan is a journalist and novelist living in Austin. Underwater photographer David Doubilet co-authored Face to Face With Sharks.