National Geographic : 1968 Jun
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY WASHINGTON, D. C. .. ' . . Organized "forthe increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge" GILBERT HOVEY GROSVENOR President,1920-1954; Editor, 1899-1954 Chairmanof the Board, 1954-1966 T HE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETYis chartered in Washington, D. C., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. Since 1890 the Society has supported 436 explorations and research projects, adding immeasurably to man's knowledge of earth, sea, and sky. It diffuses this knowledge through its monthly journal, NA TIONALGEOGRAPHIC; more than 26 million maps distributed each year; its books, globes, atlases, and filmstrips; 30 School Bulletins a year in color; information serv ices to press, radio, and television; technical monographs; exhibits from around the world in Explorers Hall; and a nationwide series of programs on television. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. MELVIN M. PAYNE, President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Vice President and Editor LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Vice President for Research and Exploration ROBERT E. DOYLE, Vice President and Secretary THOMAS M. BEERS, Vice President and Associate Secretary GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, Vice President and Associate Editor HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, Treasurer and Assistant Secretary OWEN R. ANDERSON. HERMAN J. A. C. ARENS. WILLIAM T. BELL, HERBERT T. HENDERSON, W. EDWARD ROSCHER, C. VERNON SANDERS, Associate Secretaries BOARD OF TRUSTEES MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Chairman of the Board and Editor-in-Chief THOMAS W. McKNEW, Advisory Chairman of the Board LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Former BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Secretary, Smithsonian Institution Editorial Chairman, Washington Star LEO OTIS COLBERT, Rear Admiral, MELVIN M. PAYNE, President, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey (Ret.) National Geographic Society LLOYD H. ELLIOTT, President, LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER George Washington University President, Rockefeller Brothers Fund CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT JUAN T. TRIPPE, Chairman of the Chairman, Finance Committee, Board, Pan American World Airways E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH GILBERT M. GROSVENOR Editor, National Geographic Associate Editor, National Geographic JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., Former ARTHUR B. HANSON, General Assistant Secretary of the Navy Counsel, National Geographic Society EARL WARREN CARYL P. HASKINS, President, Chief Justice of the United States Carnegie Institution of Washington JAMES E. WEBB EMORY S. LAND, Vice Admiral, Administrator, National Aeronautics U. S. Navy (Ret.), Former President, and Space Administration Air Transport Association ALEXANDER WETMORE CURTIS E. LEMAY, Former Chief Research Associate, of Staff, U. S. Air Force Smithsonian Institution H. RANDOLPH MADDOX LLOYD B. WILSON (Emeritus) Vice President, American Telephone Honorary Board Chairman, & Telegraph Company (Ret.) Chesapeake & Potomac WM. McCHESNEY MARTIN, JR. Telephone Company Chairman, Board of Governors, CONRAD L. WIRTH, Former Federal Reserve System Director, National Park Service LOUIS B. WRIGHT, Director, Folger Shakespeare Library COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Chairman ALEXANDER WETMORE and MELVIN M. PAYNE, Vice Chairmen LEO OTIS COLBERT, CARYL P. HASKINS. A. REMINGTON KEL LOGG, Research Associate, Smithsonian Institution, EMORY S. LAND, T. DALE STEWART, Senior Scientist, Office of Anthropology, Smithsonian Insti tution, MATTHEW W. STIRLING. Research Associate, Smithsonian Institu tion, JAMES H. WAKELIN.JR.. CONRAD L. WIRTH, PAUL A. ZAHL, and the senior officers of the Society; BARRY C. BISHOP, Secretary on leave; EDWIN W. SNIDER, Secretary Assistant Secretaries: CHARLES P. BIXEL, FRANK S. DELK, JOSEPH B. HOGAN. RAYMOND T. McELLIGOTT. JR. Assistant Treasurer: WILLIAM H. McCAULEY Leonard J. Grant, Editorial Assistant to the President; Edwin W. Snider, Richard E. Pearson, Administrative Assistants to the President; Judith N. Dixon, Ad ministrative Assistant to the Chairman and Editor-in-Chief; Lenore W. Kessler, Secretary to the Advisory Chairman of the Board SECRETARY'SSTAFF:Administrative: Earl Corliss, Jr., Ward S. Phelps. Account ing: Jay H. Givans, George F. Fogle, Alfred J. Hayre, William G. McGhee, Martha Allen Baggett. Statistics: Everett C. Brown, Thomas M. Kent. Retire ment: Mary L. Whitmore (Assistant Supervisor). Payroll: Dorothy L. Dameron (Assistant Supervisor). Procurement: J. P . M. Johnston, Robert G. Corey, Robert C. Ellis, Jr., Sheila H. Immel, Margaret A. Shearer. Membership Research: Charles T. Kneeland. Membership Fulfillment: Roy J. Klockenbrink. Member Relations: Paul F. Moize. Computer Center: John Goedel. Secretary's Files: Mozelle L. Downs. Promotion: Stan Jennings, E. M. Pusey, Jr., Gordon Young, Robert J. Warfel. Personnel:James B. Mahon, Adrian L. Loftin, Jr., Nellie E. Sinclair. Medical: Thomas I. Hartman, M. D. Translation:Zbigniew Jan Lutyk SCOVER: Favorite sport of children the world over, leap frog delights Berber girls of a remote village in Morocco's High Atlas (pages 866-7). KODACHROMEBYVICTORENGLEBERT© N.G.S. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Editor-in-Chief and Board Chairman MELVIN M. PAYNE President of the Society FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH,Editor GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, FRANC SHOR, Associate Editors Senior Assistant Editors: Allan C. Fisher, Jr., John Scofield Assistant Editors: Andrew H. Brown, James Cerruti, Robert L. Conly, W. E. Garrett, Edward J. Linehan, Kenneth MacLeish (Foreign Staff), Carolyn Bennett Patterson, Howell Walker, Kenneth F. Weaver Senior Editorial Staff: Lonnelle Aikman, Jules B. Billard, Rowe Findley, Wil liam Graves, Stuart E. Jones, Robert P. Jordan, Joseph Judge, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Howard La Fay, Samuel W. Matthews, Bart McDowell; Senior Natural Scientist: Paul A. Zahl Foreign EditorialStaff: Luis Marden (Chief); Thomas J. Abercrombie, David S. Boyer, Helen and Frank Schreider, Volkmar Wentzel EditorialStaff Wayne Barrett, Thomas Y. Canby, Louis de la Haba, Alice J. Hall, Werner Janney, Jay Johnston, Elizabeth A. Moize, Ethel A. Starbird, Peter T. White Editorial Layout: Howard E. Paine (Chief); Charles C. Uhl, John M. Lavery Geographic Art: William N. Palmstrom (Chief); Gilbert H. Emerson (Asst. Chief). Artists: Lisa Biganzoli, William H. Bond, John W. Lothers, Robert C. Magis, Robert W. Nicholson, Ned M. Seidler. CartographicArtists: Victor J. Kelley, Snejinka Stefanoff. Research: Walter Q. Crowe (Supervisor), George W. Beatty, John D. Garst, Jean B. McConville, Dorothy A. Nichol son, Eugene M. Scheel, John P. Wood. Isaac Ortiz (Production). Marie L. Barnes (Administrative Assistant) EditorialResearch: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Wendt (Assistant Chief), Edith C. Berg, Elisabeth J. Chappell, Ledlie L. Dinsmore, Margery G. Dunn, Jan Holderness, Levenia Loder, Frances H. Parker, Patricia Ros enborg, Elizabeth C. Wagner Geographic Research: George Crossette (Chief); Newton V. Blakeslee (Assist ant Chief), Leon J. Canova, Margaret Ladd, Virginia A. LeVasseur, John A. Weeks Phototypography: John McConnell (Chief) Library: Virginia Carter Hills (Librarian); Margery K. Barkdull (Assistant Librarian), Melba Barnes, Vera Cassilly, Katharine P. O'Donnell, Louise A. Robinson, Esther Ann Manion (Librarian Emeritus) Administration: Betty T. Sanborne, Administrative Assistant to the Editor; Harriet Carey, Virginia H. Finnegan, Winifred M. Myers, Shirley Neff (Edi torial Assistants); Dorothy M. Corson (Indexes); Rosalie K. Millerd, Jeanne S. Duiker (Files); Evelyn Fox (Transportation) ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF:IllustrationsEditor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Associate Illustrations Editor: Thomas R. Smithl. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl. Assistant Illustrations Editors: Mary S. Griswold, 0. Louis Mazzatenta, Charles Allmon (Incoming Photographs). Layout and Production:Arthur A. Terry. Senior Picture Editors: Charlene Murphy, Robert S. Patton. Picture Editors: Manuel L. Lopez, Jon Schneeberger. Research: Paula C. Simmons. Librarian: Alan J. Lessel. Barbara A. Shattuck (Assistant) Artists: Walter A. Weber (Naturalist), Peter V. Bianchi Engraving and Printing: Dee J. Andella (Chief); Joe M. Barlett, Frank S. Olhverio, William W. Smith, James R. Whitney PHOTOGRAPHIC STAFF:Director of Photography: Robert E. Gilka. Assistant Directors: B. Anthony Stewart, Dean Conger. Film Review: Albert Moldvay (Chief); Guy W. Starling (Assistant Chief). PictorialResearch:Walter Meay ers Edwards (Chief). Photographers:James P. Blair, Bruce Dale, John E. Fletcher, Otis Imboden, Emory Kristof, Bates Littlehales, George F. Mobley, Robert S. Oakes, Winfield Parks, Joseph J. Scherschel, Robert F. Sisson, James L. Stanfield Photographic Laboratory: Edwin L. Wisherd (Chief); Milton A. Ford, Donald McBain, Claude E. Petrone, Carl M. Shrader RELATED EDUCATIONAL SERVICES OF THE SOCIETY Cartography-Maps, atlases, and globes: Chief Cartographer: Wellman Cham berlin. Associate Chief Cartographer:Athos D. Grazzini. Assistant Chief: William T. Peele. Base Compilation: Charles L. Ster (Supervisor), James W. Killion. Name Compilation: Donald A. Jaeger (Supervisor), Manuela G. Kogutowicz, George E. Stuart. Map Drawings: Douglas A. Strobel (Super visor), Robert W. Northrop, Thomas A. Wall. Map Editing: Ted Dachtera (Supervisor), Russel G. Fritz, Richard K. Rogers, Thomas A. Walsh. Projec tions: David W. Cook. Layout and Design: John F. Dorr, Harry C. Siddeley. Revisions: Richard J. Darley. Administrative Assistant: Catherine M. Hart Books: Merle Severy (Chief); Edwards Park (Associate Chief); Seymour L. Fishbein (Assistant Chief), Thomas B. Allen, Ross Bennett, Charles O. Hyman, James P. Kelly, Anne Dirkes Kobor, John J. Putman, Berry L. Reece, Jr., David F. Robinson Special Publications: Robert L. Breeden (Chief); Donald J. Crump (Assistant Chief), Josephine B. Bolt, Bruce Brander, David R. Bridge, Johanna G. Farren, Ronald M. Fisher, Mary Ann Harrell, Bryan Hodgson, Geraldine Linder, Michael E. Long, Philip B. Silcott, Joseph A. Taney School Service: Ralph Gray (Chief); Arthur P. Miller, Jr. (Assistant Chief), Richard M. Crum, Jeanne A. Davis, Phyllis Greene, Charles H. Sloan, Janis Knudsen Wheat News Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief); Paul Sampson (Assistant Chief), Ed ward Cornish, Donald J. Frederick, Sabin Robbins; Isabel Clarke (Assistant) Television: Robert C. Doyle (Chief); Dennis B. Kane (Assistant Chief), David Cooper; Patricia F. Northrop (Administrative Assistant) Lectures: Joanne M. Hess (Chief); Robert G. Fleegal, Mary W. McKinney, Gerald L. Wiley Explorers Hall: T. Keilor Bentley (Curator-Director) EUROPEANOFFICES:W. Edward Roscher (Associate Secretary and Director), 11 Stanhope Gate, Mayfair, London, W. 1, England; Jacques Ostier, 6 rue des Petits-Peres, 75-Paris 2e, France ADVERTISING: Director:Harley L. McDevitt, 630 Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y . 10020. Managers-National:William A. Boeger, Jr.; Eastern: Joseph T. Feeney, New York. Midwestern: William Turgeon, Chicago. Los Angeles: Jack V. Sheehan. San Francisco:Thomas Martz. Automotive:John F. Grant, New York. Travel: Robert W. Horan, New York COPYRIGHT © 1968 NATIONALGEOGRAPHICSOCIETY,17THANDM STS. N.W ., WASHINGTON, D. C. 20036. ALLRIGHTSRESERVED.REPRODUCTIONORUSE OF THE WHOLEOR ANYPARTOF THE CONTENTSWITHOUTWRITTENPERMISSIONIS PROHIBITED.PRINTEDIN U.S .A. SECOND CLASSPOSTAGEPAIDATWASHINGTON,D.C., ANDATADDITIONAL MAILINGOFFICES.COVER DESIGNANDTITLEPROTECTEDBYINTERNATIONAL TRADEMARK.$8.00 A YEAR,$1.00 A COPY.