National Geographic : 1949 May
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST. WASHINGTON 6. D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOR, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer HERBERT A. POOLE, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman, Research Committee ALEXANDER WETMORE, Vice-Chairman, Research Committee JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice-President THOMAS W. McKNEW, Secretary VERNON II. BREWSTER, Assistant Secretary MELVIN M. PAYNE, Assistant Secretary KURTZ M. HANSON, Assistant Secretary EXECUTIVE STAFF OF TIE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Associate Editor J. R. HILDEBRAND Assistant Editor MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor JAMES M. DARLEY Chief Cartographer NEWMAN BITMSTEAD Research Cartographer CHARLES E. RIDDIFORD Cartographic Staff WELLMAN CHAMBERLIN Cartographic Staff RAYMOND W. WELCH Director of Advertising GILBERT G. LA GORCE Assistant Director of Advertising WALTER S. GIFFORD Chairman of the Board American Telephone and Telegraph Co. WII.I.IAM V. I'R.\ITT Adniiral UC.S. Navy. Retired LV.MAN J. BRIGGS Director National Bulreau of Standards, Retired ELISIIA IA\NS)ON Lawyer and Naturalist EMORY S. I.AN\I) Vice Admiral Construction Corps. I'. S. Navy, Retired; President, Air Transport Association GEORGE R. PtI'TNAM Contn missioner of Lighthouses, Retired L. 0. COLBERT Rear Admiral. Director I'. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey FRANKIIN L. FISHIER Chief Illustrations Division. National Geographic Magazine FREDERICK SIMPICH Assistant Editor LEO A. BORAII Editorial Staff FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Editorial Staff LEONARD C. ROY Chief of School Service WILLIAM II. NICHOLAS Editorial Staff F. BARROWS COLTON Editorial Staff INEZ B. RYAN Research Assistant GEORGE CROSSETTE Research Assistant BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLE;MING President and Chairman of tihe Board, Riggs National Bank CIIARIES F. KETTERING President General Motors Research Corporation 1,EROV A. LINCtOLN President Metropolitan Life Insurance Complany JIUAN T. TRIPI'E President Pan American Airways DAVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer. U. S. Department of Agriculture AI.EXAND)ER WETMOR E Secretary Snlithsonian Institution GILBERT GROSVENOR Editor of National Geographic Magazine MEIVILLE, BEILL GROSVENOR Assistant Editor. National Geographic Magazine FRANKLIN L. FISHER Chief Illustrations Division MAYNARD OWEN WILLIAMS Chief Foreign 'EditorialStaff W\. ROBERT MOOREI Foreign Editorial Staff LI'IS MARDEN Foreign Editorial Staff EDWIN L. WISIERD Chief Photographic Laboratory WALTER MEAVERS EDWARDS Illustrations Division KIP ROSS Illustrations divisionn MASON STHIERLAND Editorial Staff 11. II. ARN)OLD General of the Army, Retired Formerly commandingg generall I:.S . iArmyAir F;orces CIIARIS (;. DAW\IES Formerly Vice- President of the I united States LLOVI)D B. WILSON Formerly Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and I'ototnac Telephone Companies 'ERNEST E. NORRIS President Southern Railway System JOHN OLIVE'R LA GO(;RE Associate Editor of the National Geographic Magazine J. R. IILIEBRANI) Assistant Editor, National Geographic Magazine TIIOMAS W. McKNEWI Secretary, National Geographic Society ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded sixty-one years ago, the National Geographic Society pub lishes this Magazine monthly. All receipts are invested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys constantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than ioo scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field work to achieve their objectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizons of the southwestern I'nited States to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus crossed tlie Atlantic. By dating tlihe ruins of the vast communal dwellings in that region, The Society's re searches solved secrets that had puzzled historians for three hundred years. In Mexico, Tie Society and the Smithsonian Institu tion, January 16. 1930. discovered the oldest work of man in the Americas for which we have a date. This slab of stone is engraved in Mayan characters with a date which means November 4, 201 i. c. (Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200ooyears anything heretofore dated in America, and reveals a great center of early American culture, previously unknown. On November II, 1935, in a flight sponsored jointly by the National Geographic Society and the I'. S. Army Air Corps, the world's largest balloon. Explorer II, as cended to the world altitude record of 72.305 feet. Capt. Albert W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson took aloft in the gondola nearly a ton of scientific instru ments, and obtained results of extraordinary value. The National Geographic Society-'. S. Army Air Forces Expedition, from a camp in southern Brazil, lpho tographed and observed the solar eclipse of 1947. This was the seventh expedition of Tie Society to observe a total eclipse of the sun. The Society cooperated with Dr. William Beebe in deep-sea explorations off Bermuda, during which a world record depth of 3,028 feet was attained. The Society granted $25,oo000,and in addition $75,000 was given by individual members, to tie Government when the congressional appropriation for the purpose was insufficient, and tlti finest of tie giant sequoia trees in the Giant Forest of Sequoia National IPark of California were thereby saved for the American people. One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems outside the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration, 1938. I I Copyright. 1949, by National (eogriapticr Sciety, Washington, D. (. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservdios todos los derechos. Printed in U. S. A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington, D. C .. as Second Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103. Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July 1, 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.