National Geographic : 1952 Sep
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON 6, D. C. GILBERT GROSVENOI, President ROBERT V. FLEMING, Treasurer ItERBERT A. POOLE', Assistant Treasurer HILLEARY F. IIOSKINSON, Assistant Treasurer LYMAN J. BRI(GS, Chairman, Research Committee ALEXAND)ER WVETMORE, Vice-Chairinan, Research Comunittee SIBYL PECK, Assistant to the President JOIN OLIVER LA GOR(E, Vice-President TIOMAS W. McKNEW, Secretary VERNON II. BREWSTEI, Assistant Secretary MELVIN MA.PAYNE, Assistant Secretary KURTZ M. IIANSON, Assistant Secretary ROBERT E. DOYLE, Assistant Secretary MABEL F. STRIDER, Personnel Officer GEORGE C. MARSHALL General of the Army Formerly Secretary of Defense CURTIS E. LEI:MAY General, U. S . Air Force, Coimmanding Strategic Air CoImmand LEROY A. LINCOLN Chairman of the Board Metrolitan Life Insurance Co. LYMAN .J. BRIGGS Director, National Bureau of Standards, Retired II. RANDO()LP'It MADDOX President, (hesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies ]ILISHA IIANS()N Lawyer and Naturalist G';EORGE R. PUTNAM Commissioner of Lighthouses, Retired FRANKLIN I. FISHER Illustrations Editor National (eographic Magazine BOARD OF TRUSTEES ROBERT V. FLEMING President and Chairman of the Board Riggs National Bank ALEXANDER WETMORE Secretary, Smithsonian Institution IIUGH L. IRYDEN Director, National Advisory Coiimmittee for Aeronautics \WILIAM V. PRATT Admiral, U. S . Navy, Retired JUAN T. TRII'PE President, Pan American Airways WILLIAM E. RATHER I)irector, U. S . Geological Survey I)AVID FAIRCHILD Special Agricultural Explorer U. S . Department of Agriculture GILBERT (ROSVENOR Editor of the National Geographic Magazine M ELVILLE BE I1,LL (ROSVENOR Senior Assistant Editor National Geographic Magazine CHARLES F. LETTERING Consultant and Director General Motors Corporation LLOYD B. XIILSON Formerly Chairman of the Board Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Companies L. O. ('I.BEI'RT Rear Admiral, U. S . Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired ERNEST E.. NORRIS Chairman of the Board Southern Railway Compalny JOHN OLIVER LA (ORIE Associate Editor of the National geographicc Magazine 'EMORYS. LAND Vice Admiral, Construction Corps U. S . Navy, Retired; President Air Transport Association THOMAS W\. M\:('NEW Secretary National Geographic Society ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" To carry out the purposes for which it was founded sixty four years ago, the National Geographic Society publishes The National (Geographic Magazine monthly. All receipts are in vested in The Magazine itself or expended directly to promote geographic knowledge. Articles and photographs are desired. For material The Magazine uses, generous remuneration is made. In addition to the editorial and photographic surveys con stantly being made, The Society has sponsored more than 100 scientific expeditions, some of which required years of field work to achieve their objectives. The Society's notable expeditions have pushed back the historic horizons of the southwestern United States to a period nearly eight centuries before Columbus crossed the Atlantic. By dating the ruins of the vast conmmunal dwellings in that region, The Society's researches solved secrets that hadl puzzled historians for three hundred years. In Mexico The Society and the Smithsonian Institution, January 16, 1)939, discovered the oldest work of mlan in the Americas for which we have a date. This slab of stone is en graved in Mayan characters with a date which means Novem ber 4, 291 B. c. (Spinden Correlation). It antedates by 200 years anything heretofore dated in America, and reveals a great center of early American culture, previously unknown. On November 11, 1935, in a flight sponsored jointly by the National Geographic Society and the U. S . Army Air Corps, the world's largest balloon, Explorer II, ascended to tie world altitude record of 72,395 feet. Capt. Albe rt W. Stevens and Capt. Orvil A. Anderson took aloft in tie gondola a ton of scien tific instruments and obtained results of extraordinary value. A notable undertaking in the history of astronomy was launched in 1949 Iy The Society in cooperation with tlihe Palomar Observatory of thl C'alifornia Institute of Technology. This project will require four years to photomap the vast reaches of space, and will provide the first sky atlas for observa tories all over the world. In 1948 The Society sent seven expeditions to study the sun's eclipse on a 5,320-mile arc from Burlma to the Aleutians. The National Geographic Society and the Royal Ontario Museum in 1951 explored and measured newly found ('hubb meteor crater, 11,500 feet in diameter, in northern Quebec. The Society granted $25,000, andi in addition $75,000 was contributed by individual members, to help preserve for the American people the finest of the giant sequoia trees in the Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park of California. One of the world's largest icefields and glacial systems out side the polar regions was discovered in Alaska and Yukon by Bradford Washburn while exploring for The Society and the Harvard Institute of Exploration, 1938. EXECUTIVE STAFF OF NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE Senior Assistant Editor AMELVILLE BELL G(IOSVENOR Assistant Editors IFREDERICK G. VOSBURGH LEO A. BORAt IF.BARROWS COLTON MASON SUT'IHERLAND Editorial Staff GEOiRG W. LoNs ANDREW II. BROWN WILLIAM A. KINNEY ROBERT LESLIE ONLYY B EVERLEY Al. BOWIE LONNELLE AIKMAN STiART E. JoNES ALLAN C. FIsliER. JR. LEONARD J. GRANT Foreign Editorial Staff MAYNAIR OWEN WILLIAMS, CI W. ROBERT MOORE LUIS GARDEN IIowELL WALKER Research Staff INEZ B. RYAN MARGARET G. BLEDSOE GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, ASSOCIATE EDITOR Chief Cartographer JAMES M. DARLEY Cartographic Staff NEWMAN BU'rSTEAD, Asst. Chief CHARLES E. RIDDIIORD WELLMAN (HAMBERLIN (GEORGE CROSSE'TT"I ATHOs D. GRAZZINI JOHN J. BREIHM RALPH E. McALEER A PPHIA IlOLDSTOCK RICHARD DARLEY School Service LEONARD C. RoY, Chief RI. RALPH GRAY News Service WINDSOR P. BOOTH, Chief JOHN R. IooPES lief A dertising RAYMOND W. WELCH, Director GILBERT G. LA GORCE, Asst. Director Staff Artist and Naturalist WALTER A. WEBER Librarian ESTHER ANN MANION Illustrations Editor FRANKLIN L. I ISHIER Illustrations Staff WALTER Al. 'EDWARDS Kirt Ross ANDREW .I POGG EN POII EDWARD C. IFERRI DAY, JI. I)EE JAMES ANDELLA IIERBERT' S. WILBH-N, JH. ROBERT J. REYNOLDS (CARO STILLWELL, Librarian 'lhototgraphic Laboratory EDWIN L. WISHERDn,chieff CHARD II. STEWAiR, Asst. Chief FRANK II. WILDI'NG Staff I'hotographers B. ANTIONY STE'WART WILLmARDRIt.('tULVER .J . BAYLOR ROBERTr VOLKMAR V ENT'ZEL JUSTIN IOCKE ROBEirr F. SSSON JOHN E. IFLET'(CHER IONALD Mc(BAIN Film Editor JOSEPH Al. RIDEOUT Copyright. 1952. by National Geographic Society.Washington. D. C. International Copyright secured. All rights reserved. Quedan reservados todos los derechos. 1'rinted i UI.S. A. Entered at the Post Office at Washington. D. C. . as Second (Class Mail Matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103. Act of October 3, 1917. authorized July 1. 1918. Cover design and names registered in United States Patent Office. Marca Registrada.