National Geographic : 1970 Oct
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY . ' WASHINGTON, D. C. Z Organized"for the increase and // diffusion of geographic knowledge" GILBERT HOVEY GROSVENOR RT Editor, 1899-1954; President, 1920-1954 Chairman of the Board, 1954-1966 THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY is chartered in Washington, D.C ., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. Since 1890 the Society has supported 612 explorations and research projects, adding immeasurably to man's knowledge of earth, sea, and sky. It diffuses this knowledge through its monthly journal, NA TIONAL GEOGRAPHIC; more than 27 million maps distributed each year; its books, globes, atlases, and filmstrips; 30 School Bulletins a year in color; information serv ices to press, radio, and television; technical reports; exhibits from around the world in Explorers Hall; and a nationwide series of programs on television. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. MELVIN M. PAYNE, President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Vice President and Editor LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Vice President for Research and Exploration ROBERT E. DOYLE, Vice President and Secretary THOMAS M. BEERS, Vice President and Associate Secretary GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, Vice President and Associate Editor HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, Treasurer OWEN R. ANDERSON, WILLIAM T. BELL, LEONARD J. GRANT, HERBERT T. HENDERSON, W. EDWARD ROSCHER, C. VERNON SANDERS, Associate Secretaries BOARD OF TRUSTEES MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Chairman of the Board and Editor-in-Chief THOMAS W. McKNEW. Advisory Chairman of the Board LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Former Secretary, Smithsonian Institution LLOYD H. ELLIOTT, President, George Washington University a CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT Chairman, Finance Committee, E. 1. du Pont de Nemours & Company GILBERT M. GROSVENOR Associate Editor, National Geographic ARTHUR B. HANSON, General Counsel, National Geographic Society CARYL P. HASKINS, President, Carnegie Institution of Washington EMORY S. LAND, Vice Admiral, U. S. Navy (Ret.), Former President, Air Transport Association CURTIS E. LEMAY, Former Chief of Staff, U. S . Air Force H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Former Vice President, American Telephone & Telegraph Company WM. McCHESNEY MARTIN, JR. Former Chairman, Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Editorial Chairman, Washington Star MELVIN M. PAYNE, President, National Geographic Society LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER President, Rockefeller Brothers Fund ROBERT C. SEAMANS, JR. Secretary of the Air Force JUAN T. TRIPPE, Honorary Chairman of the Board, Pan American World Airways FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Editor, National Geographic JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., Former Assistant Secretary of the Navy EARL WARREN, Former Chief Justice of the United States JAMES E. WEBB, Former Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration ALEXANDER WETMORE Research Associate, Smithsonian Institution LLOYD B. WILSON (Emeritus) Honorary Board Chairman, Chesapeake & Potomac Telephone Company CONRAD L. WIRTH, Former Director, National Park Service LOUIS B. WRIGHT, Former Director, Folger Shakespeare Library COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Chairman ALEXANDER WETMORE and MELVIN M. PAYNE, Vice Chairmen GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, CARYL P. HASKINS, EMORY S. LAND, THOMAS W. McKNEW, T. DALE STEWART, Senior Scientist, Office of Anthropology, Smithsonian Insti tution, MATTHEW W. STIRLING, Research Associate, Smithsonian Institu tion, JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR,, FRANK C. WHITMORE, JR., Research Geologist, U.S . Geological Survey, CONRAD L. WIRTH, FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, and PAUL A. ZAHL; BARRY C. BISHOP, Secretary on leave; EDWIN W. SNIDER, Secretary Assistant Secretaries of the Society: CHARLES P. BIXEL, FRANK S. DELK, JOHN GOEDEL, JOSEPH B. HOGAN, RAYMOND T. McELLIGOTT, JR., EDWIN W. SNIDER Assistant Treasurer: WILLIAM H. HAMILTON Leonard J. Grant, Editorial Assistant to the President; Edwin W. Snider, Richard E. Pearson, Administrative Assistants to the President; Judith N. Dixon, Ad ministrative Assistant to the Chairman and Editor-in-Chief; Lenore W. Kessler, Administrative Assistant to the Advisory Chairman of the Board SECRETARY'SSTAFF:Administrative: Earl Corliss, Jr., Ward S. Phelps. Account ing: Jay H. Givans, George F. Fogle, Alfred J. Hayre, William G. McGhee, Martha Allen Baggett. Statistics: Everett C. Brown, Thomas M. Kent. Retire ment: Mary L. Whitmore (Assistant Supervisor). Payroll: Dorothy L. Dameron (Assistant Supervisor). Procurement: J. P . M. Johnston, Robert G. Corey, Sheila H. Immel, Margaret A. Shearer. Membership Research: Charles T. Knee land. Membership Fulfillment: Geneva S. Robinson, Paul B. Tylor, Peter F. Woods. Computer Center: Lewis P. Lowe. Promotion:E. M. Pusey, Jr., Robert J. Warfel, Towne W. Windom. Printing:Joe M. Barlett, Frank S. Oliverio. Produc tion Control: James P. Kelly. Personnel:James B. Mahon, Adrian L. Loftin, Jr., Glenn G. Pepperman, Nellie E. Sinclair. Medical: Thomas L. Hartman, M. D. Translation:Zbigniew Jan Lutyk COVER: Eager schoolboy masters the language of Orissa (page 546). KODACHROMEBY JAMESP. BLAIR N.G.S. POSTMASTER:SEND CHANGEOF ADDRESSFORM 3579 AND UNDELIVEREDCOPIESTO NATIONAL GEOGRAPHICMAGAZINE,17THAND M STS. N.W., WASHINGTON,D.C. 20036 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Editor-in-Chief and Board Chairman MELVIN M. PAYNE President of the Society FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Editor Associate Editors GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, FRANC SHOR, JOHN SCOFIELD Senior Assistant Editors Allan C. Fisher, Jr., Kenneth MacLeish, Robert L. Conly AssistantEditors: Andrew H. Brown, James Cerruti, W. E. Garrett, Edward J. Linehan, Carolyn Bennett Patterson, Howell Walker, Kenneth F. Weaver Senior Editorial Staff: Lonnelle Aikman, Jules B. Billard, Rowe Findley, Wil liam Graves, Jay Johnston, Stuart E. Jones, Robert P. Jordan, Joseph Judge, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Samuel W. Matthews, Bart McDowell; Senior Natural Scientist: Paul A. Zahl ForeignEditorialStaff: Luis Marden (Chief); Thomas J. Abercrombie, Howard La Fay, Volkmar Wentzel, Peter T. White EditorialStaff: Harvey Arden, Thomas Y. Canby, Louis de la Haba, William S. Ellis, Alice J. Hall, Werner Janney, Jerry Kline, Elizabeth A. Moize, Mike W. Edwards, Ethel A. Starbird, Gordon Young EditorialLayout: Howard E. Paine (Chief); Charles C. Uhl, John M. Lavery GeographicArt: William N. Palmstrom (Chief). Artists: Lisa Biganzoli, Wil liam H. Bond, John W. Lothers, Robert C. Magis, Robert W. Nicholson, Ned M. Seidler. CartographicArtists: Victor J. Kelley, Snejinka Stefanoff. Re search: Walter Q. Crowe (Supervisor), Virginia L. Baza, George W. Beatty, John D. Garst, Jean B. McConville, Dorothy A. Nicholson, Isaac Ortiz (Production). Marie L. Barnes (Administrative Assistant) Editorial Research: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Wendt (Associate Chief), Margaret L. Dugdale, Jan Holderness, Levenia Loder, Frances H. Parker Geographic Research: George Crossette (Chief); Newton V. Blakeslee (Assist ant Chief), Leon J. Canova, Bette Joan Goss, Lesley B. Lane, John A. Weeks Phototypography:John E. McConnell (Chief); Lawrence F. Ludwig (Assistant Chief) Library: Virginia Carter Hills (Librarian); Margery K. Barkdull (Assistant Librarian), Melba Barnes, Vera Cassilly, Louise A. Robinson, Esther Ann Manion (Librarian Emeritus) Administration: Betty T. Sanborne, Administrative Assistant to the Editor; Harriet Carey, Virginia H. Finnegan, Joyce W. McKean, Winifred M. Myers, Inez D. Wilkinson (Editorial Assistants); Dorothy M. Corson (Indexes); Rosalie K. Millerd, Lorine Wendling (Files); Evelyn Fox (Transportation); Carolyn F. Clewell (Correspondence); Jeanne S. Duiker (Archives) ILLUSTRATIONSSTAFF:IllustrationsEditor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Associate Illustrations Editor: Thomas R. Smith. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl. Assistant IllustrationsEditors: Mary S. Griswold, O. Louis Mazzatenta. Lay out and Production:H. Edward Kim (Chief). Senior Picture Editors: Char lene Murphy, Robert S. Patton. PictureEditors: David L. Arnold, William C. Latham, Michael E. Long, W. Allan Royce, Jon Schneeberger. Research: Paula C. Simmons. Barbara A. Shattuck (Asst.). Librarian:L. Fern Dame Artists: Walter A. Weber (Naturalist), Peter V. Bianchi Engraving and Printing:Dee J. Andella (Chief); Raymond B. Benzinger, Wil liam W. Smith, James R. Whitney PHOTOGRAPHIC STAFF:Director of Photography: Robert E. Gilka. Assistant Director: Dean Conger. Film Review: Albert Moldvay (Chief); Guy W. Starling (Assistant Chief). PhotographicEquipment:JohnE. Fletcher (Chief), Donald McBain. PictorialResearch: Walter Meayers Edwards (Chief). Pho tographers:James L. Amos, James P. Blair, Bruce Dale, Dick Durrance II, Otis Imboden, Emory Kristof, Bates Littlehales, George F. Mobley, Robert S. Oakes, Winfield Parks, Joseph J. Scherschel, Robert F. Sisson, James L. Stanfield. Lilian Davidson (Administration). PhotographicLaboratories:Carl M. Shrader (Chief); Milton A. Ford (Associate Chief); Herbert Altemus, Jr., David H. Chisman, Claude E. Petrone, Donald E. Stemper. Edwin L. Wish erd (Consultant) RELATED EDUCATIONAL SERVICES OF THE SOCIETY Cartography-Maps,atlases, and globes: Chief Cartographer:Wellman Cham berlin; Associate Chief Cartographer:Athos D. Grazzini; Assistant Chief: William T. Peele. Base Compilation: Charles L. Stern (Supervisor), Charles F. Case,James W. Killion. Name Compilation:Donald A. Jaeger (Supervisor), Charles W. Gotthardt, Jr., Manuela G. Kogutowicz, David L. Moore. Map Drawings: Douglas A. Strobel (Supervisor), Robert W. Northrop, Tibor G. Toth, Thomas A. Wall. Map Editing: Ted Dachtera (Supervisor), Russel G. Fritz, Thomas A. Walsh. Projections: David W. Cook. Layout and Design: John F. Dorr, Harry C. Siddeley. Revisions: Richard J. Darley. Archeology: George E. Stuart. Printing Control:Richard K. Rogers.AdministrativeAssist ant: Catherine M. Hart Books: Merle Severy (Chief); Seymour L. Fishbein (Assistant Chief), Thom as B. Allen, Ross Bennett, Charles 0. Hyman, Anne Dirkes Kobor, John J. Putman, David F. Robinson, Verla Lee Smith Special Publications:Robert L. Breeden (Chief); Donald J. Crump (Assistant Chief), Josephine B. Bolt, David R. Bridge, Margery G. Dunn, Johanna G. Farren, Ronald M. Fisher, Mary Ann Harrell, Bryan Hodgson, Geraldine Linder, Philip B. Silcott, Joseph A. Taney School Service: Ralph Gray (Chief and Editor of National Geographic School Bulletin); Arthur P. Miller, Jr. (Assistant Chief and Associate Editor of School Bulletin), Joseph B. Goodwin, Ellen Joan Hurst, Paul F. Moize, Charles H. Sloan, Janis Knudsen Wheat. EducationalFilmstrips: David S. Boyer (Chief); Ledlie L. Dinsmore, Margaret McKelway Johnson, Bonnie S. Lawrence News Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief); Paul Sampson (Assistant Chief), Donald J. Frederick, Robert C. Radcliffe; Isabel Clarke (Assistant) Television: Robert C. Doyle (Chief); David Cooper, Carl W. Harmon, Jr., Sidney Platt, Patricia F. Northrop (Administrative Assistant) Lectures: Joanne M. Hess (Chief); Robert G. Fleegal, Mary W. McKinney, Gerald L. Wiley Explorers Hall:T. Keilor Bentley (Curator-Director) EUROPEAN OFFICES:W. Edward Roscher (Associate Secretary and Director), 4 Curzon Place, Mayfair, London, WI Y 8EN, England; Jacques Ostier, 6 rue des Petits-Peres, 75-Paris 2e, France ADVERTISING:Director:William A. Boeger, Jr. NationalAdvertising Manag er: William Turgeon; Executive DirectorofAdvertising Relations: Harley L. McDevitt, 630 Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y. 10020. Regionalmanagers-East ern: George W. Kellner, New York. Midwestern: Robert R. Henn, Chicago. Western: Thomas Martz, San Francisco. Los Angeles: Jack Wallace. Automo tive: John F. Grant, New York. Travel: Gerald A. Van Splinter, New York. International:James L. Till, New York. European: Richard V. Macy, Paris COPYRIGHT@ 1970 NATIONALGEOGRAPHICSOCIETY,17THANDM STS. N.W., WASHINGTON, D.C. 20036. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.REPRODUCTIONOF THE WHOLEOR ANYPARTOF THE CONTENTSWITHOUTWRITTENPERMISSIONIS PROHIBITED.PRINTEDIN U.S.A. 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