National Geographic : 1888 Oct
84 National GeographicMagazine. designed by Mr. W. D. Johnson, of the U. S. G. S. and was im mediately adopted. This is substantially a modification of the ball and socket movement. It consists of two cups of large size fitting closely to one another and working within one another in such a way as to allow of the adjustment in level, and the clamp ing of the level adjustment independently of the azimuth move ment, clamps for both level and azimuth adjustments being under neath the instrument. This form is extremely stable, admits of quick adjustment and leveling, and it has been from the time of its invention in general use in this state and elsewhere in the Survey. In the undulating, forest-covered, region in the southeastern part of the state it was found impracticable to use economically the method of intersections, and resort was had to the traverse method for making locations. In this method, as is well known, one station is located from another by the measurement of a distance and direction, the line of stations being connected at each end either upon stations in the triangulation or upon other lines, while from the stations in these traverse lines, points off the lines are located by intersections, if practicable, or by distance and direction measurement. For this kind of work the plane table, at least such a plane table as is generally in use is an incon venient instrument. The plane table with the telescopic alidade is too cumbersome an instrument to be carried about and set up as frequently as is necessary in this work. Therefore for this purpose theodolites, fitted with stadia wires and stadia rods, have been used. Distances are measured by the angles subtended by the stadia wires upon the rod, whose divisions are of known length, while the directions are measured by the compass attached to the theodolite, and differences of elevation by spirit level and vertical angles. With this instrument lines were run along all the roads and along the principal streams in this part of the state and from these lines the country lying between them was located and sketched. In the northeastern and in much of the middle portion of the state a mixed method of work was employed, the plane table being used for carrying on the intersection work wherever it could be done, while by traversing the roads, their details, which could not be obtained by the plane table in this region, were reached. These traverses were platted in the office and the maps drawn from notes and sketches made in the field.