National Geographic : 1891 May 29
108 I. C. Russell-Expedition to Mount St. Elias. above the upper archway. Traversing the sand plain to the westward, we came to another stream of nearly equal interest, flowing along the western margin of the glacier, past the end of the deep gorge called Floral pass. A small creek, flowing down the pass, joins the stream and skirts the glacier just below the mouth of a wild gorge on the side of the main valley. This stream once flowed along the border of the Lucia glacier when it was much higher than now, and began the excavation of a channel in the rock, which was retained after the surface of the glacier was lowered by melting. It still flows in a rock-cut channel for about a mile before descending to the border of the glacier as it exists at present. The geologist will see at once that this is a peculiar example of superimposed drainage. The gorge cut by the stream is a deep narrow trench with rough angular cliffs on either side, and is a good example of a water-cut canon. When the Lucia glacier melts away and leaves the broad bottomed valley clear of ice, the deep narrow gorge on its western side, running parallel with its longer axes, but a thousand feet or more above its bottom, will remain as one of the evidences of a former ice invasion. During our reconnoissance we turned back at the margin of the second river, but a day or two later reached the same point with the camp hands and camping outfit, and, placing a rope from bank to bank, effected a crossing. Our next camp was in Floral pass. From there we occupied a topographical station on the summit of the Floral hills, and made another reconnoissance ahead, across the Hayden glacier,* to the next mountain spur. Floral pass, like so many of the topographical features examined during the recent expedition, has a peculiar history. It is a com paratively low-grade gorge leading directly across the end of an angular mountain range forming one of the spurs of Mount Cook. The position of the pass was determined by an east-and west fault and by the erosion of soft shales turned up on edge along the line of displacement. At its head it is shut in by the Hayden glacier, which flows past it and forms a wall of ice about two hundred feet high. The water flowing out from beneath the side of the glacier forms a muddy creek, which finds its way over a bowlder-covered bed in the bottom of the gorge to the border of Lucia glacier. Along the sides of the gorge there are * Named in honor of the late Dr. Ferdinand V. Hayden, founder of the United States Geological Survey of the Territories.
1892 Feb 19