National Geographic : 1891 May 29
66 I. C..Russell-Expedition to Mount St. Elias. the observatory of Mulgrave, said mountain bears N. 38° 50' W., a distance of 55.1 miles, deduced by means of good observations from the ends of a sufficient base. A quadrant was used to measure the angle of apparent altitude of the mountain, 2° 38' 6", and allowing for terrestrial refraction, which is one-tenth of the distance of 55.1 miles, the true altitude was found to be 20 34' 39/ / ; whence its elevation above sea-level was concluded to be 2,793 toises [17,860 feet], and the length of the tangent to the hori zon, 152 miles, allowance being made for the increase due to terrestrial refraction * * * "Lastly, with the rhumb, or astronomic azimuth, and the distance from the observatory of Mulgrave to Mount St. Elias, it was ascertained that hat mountain was 43' 15" to the north and 1° 9' to the west, whence its latitude is found to be 60° 17' 35^ and its longitude 134° 33' 10^ west of Cadiz." Taking the longitude of Cadiz as 6° 19' 07" W. (San Sebastian light-house), the longitude of St. Elias from this determination would be 140° 52' 17" W. VANCOUVER, 1794.* The next vessels to visit Yakutat bay after Malaspina's voyage, so far as known, were the Discovery and Chatham, under com mand of Captain George Vancouver. This voyage increased knowledge of the geography of southern Alaska more than any that preceded it, and was also of greater importance than any single expedition of later date to that region. The best maps of southern Alaska published at the present day are based largely on the surveys of Vancouver. The Discovery, under the immediate command of Vancouver, and the Chatham, in charge of Peter Puget, cruised eastward along the southern coast of Alaska in 1794. The Discoverypassed the entrance to Yakutat bay without stopping, but the Chatham anchored there, and important surveys were carried on under Puget's directions. On June 28, the Discovery was in the vicinity of Icy bay, where the shore of the ocean seemed to be composed of solid ice. East ward from Icy bay the coast is described as " bordered by low lands rising with a gradual and uniform ascent to the foot-hills of lofty mountains, whose summits are but the base from which Mount St. Elias towers magnificently into the regions of per * A Voyage of Discovery to the Northern Pacific Ocean and around the World, 1790-'95; new edition, 6 vols., London, 1801. The citations which follow are from vol. 5, pp. 348-407.
1892 Feb 19