National Geographic : 1892 Mar 18
12 G. G. Hubbard-The Evolution of Commerce. Britain.* Eighty-seven per cent of these exports and imports are carried in British ships, consigned to English houses which have been established in every large port in the world, and the proceeds are usually remitted to the London banker. Fortunately, our flag never disappeared from our inland waters and from our coasting trade; for foreigners are excluded from the coasting trade, even where the ports are fifteen thousand miles apart by water. The substitution of steamers for sailing ships and of steel for wooden propellers, which took place from ten to twenty years ago on the ocean, is now going rapidly on upon our lakes. Where in 1886 there were but six steel propellers, now there are sixty eight; and of 2,225 vessels on the northern lakes, 1,153 are steamers, 902 are sailing vessels. The action of Congress in providing for the construction and equipment of war vessels by competition has led our ship-builders within the last eight years to establish ship-yards and machine shops where the largest ships can be built, and we are now building as large and fast vessels of war as England. Our ship-builders claim that they can construct ships equal in carrying capacity, speed and strength to those of Great Britain, and at no greater cost; though they can not be run so cheaply because our sailors are better housed, fed and paid than those of other nations. The day will surely come when commerce will make her last movement westward, when America, lying between Europe and Asia, with her boundless mineral and agricultural resources, her manufacturing facilities, her extended sea-coasts, will be the foremost nation and New York the commercial capital of the world. Nicaragua Canal. From New York to San Francisco by land is about 3,000 miles, by water it is about 15,000 miles; yet, notwithstanding the greater distance, freight is constantly sent by water. From San Francisco it is about the same distance by water to either New York or London. If a waterway could be opened across the isthmus of Panama from one ocean to the other, the distance from New York to San Francisco would be diminished more than * The exports of the United States have increased 112 per cent, the ex ports and imports 92 per cent; the exports of Great Britain 35 per cent, her exports and imports 37 per cent.
1892 May 15
1892 Feb 19