National Geographic : 1893 Jul 10
Relation of the old and new Forest Trees. 95 not grown on the top of the layer of volcanic sand like the living trees, but that they extended down through this layer to the original soil beneath. The relation of the old and new forest trees, as well as that of the stumps of the older forest, is shown in the accompanying sketch (figure 3).* It is evident that the tree from the original soil beneath is older than the eruption, and that since the tree was either dead 3 47' i5 1.z . r mot. ,, . 1 Volcanic Ashes Lapilli &c, 2 Original soil. 3 Present forest tree 4 Tree of former forest killed by shower of Volcanic Ashes Sand &c. 5 Pit formed by the decay of old forest tree. FIGURE 3.- Relations of older and younger Forests to volcanic Sand. or killed at that time and has not completely decayed, that the eruption cannot have occurred many centuries ago. Of the time that has since elapsed we have some measure in the age of the living trees. In the same region the timber is cut for lumber, and by counting the number of rings of growth it was found that the * Reproduced from Bulletin 79, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1891, p. 20.
1894 Jan 31
1893 May 05