National Geographic : 1897 Jan
32 GEOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT OF CIVILIZATION of this city is more commanding than that of any other city. Seated on two continents, the connecting link between the Orient and Europe, mistress of the seas, glorious in situation, the desired of many nations, we behold environments which caused its rise and continued existence. We are not surprised that this city has been the seat of a government longer than any other that ever existed, and has enjoyed a continuity and concentration of imperial rule in an imperial city without parallel in the history of mankind. By Prof. Edwin A. Grosvenor, of Amherst College, Amherst, Massachusetts, formerly of Roberts College, Constantinople. Eighth lecture-Venice and Genoa. When the rule of Constantinople passed from the Christians to the Mohammedans, on the ruins of the old world rose these two cities, fitted by their geographic environment to take up the civilization of the old world and to develop that of modern Europe-two cities unlike any other cities of Europe, each supreme within its small territory, owing no fealty to any sovereign outside its own district, each deriving power and wealth from the control of the sea. In their conditions of environment on the Mediterranean, with colonies in the Crimea and in Asia Minor, with easy access to the interior of Europe, we find the causes which led to the increase of their population and wealth, to the expansion of their commerce and their territorial possessions. When these are known we understand the part they bore in the awakening of the world from the torpor of the Dark Ages, opening the way to the new world, and to the renaissance of commerce, literature, arts, and science. By Prof. William H. Goodyear, of the Brooklyn Insti tute of Arts and Sciences. Ninth lecture-America. From the Old World we pass to the New, America, where the Puritans of Plymouth and Massachusetts bay, the Knickerbockers of New Amsterdam, the Quakers of Pennsylvania, the Catholics of Baltimore, and the Royalists of Virginia all unconsciously laid the foundation of a unique empire. Their descendants have spread over the whole land and mingled with the best class of emigrants from every country of Europe, and are the progenitors of a new race. All geographic environments have become subservient to the will of the people, from ocean to ocean, from the waters of the Hudson to the waters of the gulf of Mexico, one people and one language, an American race, an empire vaster than that of Rome, home of all the nations of the world, welded into one great and free people. The lectures will be neither historical nor scholastic treatises, but general accounts of the several nations and cities in popular language, so arranged as to show how largely their development depended on natural causes, including their geographic environment, until we come to the New World, where the environments become subservient to man and not man to his environments. With this exception, it suffices to indicate only the general scope of the lectures, leaving to each lecturer perfect freedom to treat his subject in his own manner, ever bearing in mind the effect of geographic environ ment on the continuous development of civilization from one nation to another through the centuries. GARDINER G. HUBBARD.