National Geographic : 1897 Jul
THE FORESTS AND DESERTS OF ARIZONA 205 and purchase negotiated by the then Minister to Mexico, James Gadsden, in 1854, for the purpose of obtaining a suitable route for a southern Pacific railroad, the price paid for the latter por tion being $10,000,000. Spanish development was confined entirely to the lower por tions, and consisted mainly in the establishment of missions to convert the agricultural Indians, and in the location of-presidios at Tucson and Tubac to protect the missions and the few haci endas and silver mines then worked, the hostile Apache con stantly harassing their Indian and Spanish neighbors alike and withstanding the progress of civilization. In 1863 the territory of Arizona was segregated from New Mexico, the name probably being a modification of Arizonac, a Papago Indian name of uncertain meaning which had been ap plied to a native village and was extended to the lower portion of what is now our southwestern province by the Spaniards. The expeditions of the War Department under Sitgreaves, Wil liamson, Whipple, Parke, Gray, Beale, and Ives during the years from 1852 to 1860 give us the first definite knowledge of the country. Almost simultaneously with these, immigration and mining development began under protection of military forts Buchanan and Breckinridge. From 1863, when the territory was segregated from New Mexico, to 1874, the history of Arizona is written in blood. It took a hardy man to run the risk of tomahawk and scalping knife in order to benefit from the rich mineral discoveries in southern and middle Arizona. Nor were the mining communi ties themselves without their internal strife and shotgun admin istration of desperadoes and Mexican laborers. The successful campaigns of General Custer, however, broke the war spirit of the Indians and led to the treaty of 1874, when these Indians were placed on reservations. The advent of the Southern Pacific railroad in 1878 stimulated anew the development of the mining districts, and since the Apache Indians,with their cunning leader, Geronimo, were removed to Florida in 1886 the peaceful progress of the territory is assured, and one may travel through the coun try with no more fear of a hold-up than in Texas or New York. Three centuries and three score years of history ! Yet the be ginnings of civilization and of the development of the territory date back hardly a score of years, and it is only a little over a decade since a really peaceful progress has begun-since the marauding Apache has been removed!