National Geographic : 1970 Mar
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY WASHINGTON, D. C. Organized "for the increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge" GILBERT HOVEY GROSVENOR Editor, 1899-1954; President, 1920-1954 RATED Chairman of the Board, 1954-1966 HE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY is chartered in Washington, D. C ., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. Since 1890 the Society has supported 549 explorations and research projects, adding immeasurably to man's knowledge of earth, sea, and sky. It diffuses this knowledge through its monthly journal, NA TIONAL GEOGRAPHIC; more than 27 million maps distributed each year; its books, globes, atlases, and filmstrips; 30 School Bulletins a year in color; information serv ices to press, radio, and television; technical reports; exhibits from around the world in Explorers Hall; and a nationwide series of programs on television. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. MELVIN M. PAYNE, President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Vice President and Editor LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Vice President for Research and Exploration ROBERT E. DOYLE, Vice President and Secretary THOMAS M. BEERS, Vice President and Associate Secretary GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, Vice President and Associate Editor HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, Treasurer OWEN R. ANDERSON, HERMAN J. A . C . ARENS, WILLIAM T. BELL, LEONARD J. GRANT, HERBERT T. HENDERSON, W. EDWARD ROSCHER, C. VERNON SANDERS, Associate Secretaries BOARD OF TRUSTEES MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Chairman of the Board and Editor-in-Chief THOMAS W. McKNEW, Advisory Chairman of the Board LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Former MELVIN M. PAYNE, President, Secretary, Smithsonian Institution National Geographic Society LLOYD H. ELLIOTT, President, LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER George Washington University President, Rockefeller Brothers Fund CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT ROBERT C. SEAMANS, JR. Chairman, Finance Committee, Secretary of the Air Force E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company JUAN T. TRIPPE, Honorary GILBERT M. GROSVENOR Chairman of the Board, Associate Editor, National Geographic Pan American World Airways ARTHUR B. HANSON, General FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Counsel, National Geographic Society Editor, National Geographic CARYL P. HASKINS, President, JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., Former Carnegie Institution of Washington Assistant Secretary of the Navy MORY S. LAND, Vice Admiral, EARL WARREN, Former EMORY S. LAND, Vice Admiral, Chief Justice of the United States U. S. Navy (Ret.), Former President, Chefusticeofthe nted states Air Transport Association JAMES E. WEBB, Former RTIS E. LMAY, Former Chief Administrator, National Aeronautics CURTIS E. LEMAY, Former Chief and Space Administration of Staff, U. S. Air Force ALEXANDER WETMORE H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Research Associate, Vice President, American Telephone Smithsonian Institution & Telegraph Company (Ret.) LLOYD B. WILSON (Emeritus) WM. McCHESNEY MARTIN, JR. Honorary Board Chairman, Former Chairman, Board of Chesapeake & Potomac Governors, Federal Reserve System Telephone Company BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY CONRAD L. WIRTH, Former Editorial Chairman, Washington Star Director, National Park Service LOUIS B. WRIGHT, Former Director, Folger Shakespeare Library COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Chairman ALEXANDER WETMORE and MELVIN M. PAYNE, Vice Chairmen GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, CARYL P. HASKINS, EMORY S. LAND, THOMAS W. McKNEW, T. DALE STEWART, Senior Scientist, Office of Anthropology, Smithsonian Insti tution, MATTHEW W. STIRLING, Research Associate, Smithsonian Institu tion, JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., CONRAD L. WIRTH, FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, and PAUL A. ZAHL; BARRY C. BISHOP, Secretary on leave; EDWIN W. SNIDER, Secretary Assistant Secretaries of the Society: CHARLES P. BIXEL, FRANK S. DELK, JOHN GOEDEL, JOSEPH B. HOGAN, RAYMOND T. McELLIGOTT, JR., EDWIN W. SNIDER Assistant Treasurer: WILLIAM H. HAMILTON Leonard J. Grant, Editorial Assistant to the President; Edwin W. Snider, Richard E. Pearson, Administrative Assistants to the President; Judith N. Dixon, Ad ministrative Assistant to the Chairman and Editor-in-Chief; Lenore W. Kessler, Administrative Assistant to the Advisory Chairman of the Board SECRETARY'SSTAFF:Administrative: Earl Corliss, Jr., Ward S. Phelps. Account ing: Jay H. Givans, George F. Fogle, Alfred J. Hayre, William G. McGhee, Martha Allen Baggett. Statistics: Everett C. Brown, Thomas M. Kent. Retire ment: Mary L. Whitmore (Assistant Supervisor). Payroll: Dorothy L. Dameron (Assistant Supervisor). Procurement: J. P . M. Johnston, Robert G. Corey, Robert C. Ellis, Jr., Sheila H. Immel, Margaret A. Shearer. Membership Research: Charles T. Kneeland. Membership Fulfillment: Mozelle L. Downs, Geneva S. Robinson, Peter F. Woods. Computer Center: Lewis P. Lowe. Promotion:Stan Jennings, E. M. Pusey, Jr., Robert J. Warfel. Printing:Joe M. Barlett, Frank S. Oliverio. ProductionControl:James P. Kelly. Personnel:James B. Mahon, Adrian L. Loftin, Jr., Glenn G. Pepperman, Nellie E. Sinclair. Medical: Thomas L. Hart man, M. D. Translation:Zbigniew Jan Lutyk A COVER: Drummer girl performs at a geisha house in Kyoto (pages 338-9). THOMASJ. ABERCROMBIEN.G .S . POSTMASTER:SEND CHANGEOF ADDRESSFORM 3579 AND UNDELIVEREDCOPIESTO NATIONAL GEOGRAPHICMAGAZINE,17TH ANDM STS. N.W., WASHINGTON,D. C. 20036 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Editor-in-Chief and Board Chairman MELVIN M. PAYNE President of the Society FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Editor Associate Editors GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, FRANC SHOR, JOHN SCOFIELD Senior Assistant Editors Allan C. Fisher, Jr., Kenneth MacLeish, Robert L. Conly Assistant Editors: Andrew H. Brown, James Cerruti, W. E. Garrett, Edward J. Linehan, Carolyn Bennett Patterson, Howell Walker, Kenneth F. Weaver Senior Editorial Staff: Lonnelle Aikman, Jules B. Billard, Rowe Findley, Wil liam Graves, Jay Johnston, Stuart E. Jones, Robert P. Jordan, Joseph Judge, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Samuel W. Matthews, Bart McDowell; Senior Natural Scientist: Paul A. Zahl ForeignEditorialStaff: Luis Marden (Chief); Thomas J. Abercrombie, Howard La Fay, Volkmar Wentzel, Peter T. White EditorialStaff: Harvey Arden, Thomas Y. Canby, Louis de la Haba, William S. Ellis, Alice J. Hall, Werner Janney, Jerry Kline, Elizabeth A. Moize, Ethel A. Starbird, Gordon Young EditorialLayout: Howard E. Paine (Chief); Charles C. Uhl, John M. Lavery Geographic Art: William N. Palmstrom (Chief). Artists: Lisa Biganzoli, Wil liam H. Bond, John W. Lothers, Robert C. Magis, Robert W. Nicholson, Ned M. Seidler. Cartographic Artists: Victor J. Kelley, Snejinka Stefanoff. Re search: Walter Q. Crowe (Supervisor), Virginia L. Baza, George W. Beatty, John D. Garst, Jean B. McConville, Dorothy A. Nicholson, Isaac Ortlz (Production). Marie L. Barnes (Administrative Assistant) EditorialResearch: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Wendt (Associate Chief), Jan Holderness, Levenia Loder, Frances H. Parker, Patricia Rosen borg, Elizabeth C. Wagner GeographicResearch: George Crossette (Chief); Newton V. Blakeslee (Assist ant Chief), Leon J. Canova, Lesley B. Lane, John A. Weeks Phototypography:John E. McConnell (Chief); Lawrence F. Ludwig (Assistant Chief) Library: Virginia Carter Hills (Librarian); Margery K. Barkdull (Assistant Librarian), Melba Barnes, Vera Cassilly, Louise A. Robinson, Esther Ann Manion (Librarian Emeritus) Administration: Betty T. Sanborne, Administrative Assistant to the Editor; Harriet Carey, Virginia H. Finnegan, Joyce W. McKean, Winifred M. Myers, Shirley Neff, Inez D. Wilkinson (Editorial Assistants); Dorothy M. Corson (Indexes); Rosalie K. Millerd, Jeanne S. Duiker, Lorine Wendling (Files); Evelyn Fox (Transportation); Carolyn F. Clewell (Correspondence) ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF:Illustrations Editor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Associate IllustrationsEditor:Thomas R. Smith.Art Editor:Andrew Poggen pohl. Assistant IllustrationsEditors:Mary S. Griswold, 0. Louis Mazzatenta Layout and Production: H. Edward Kim (Chief). Senior Picture Editors: Charlene Murphy, Robert S. Patton. Picture Editors:David L. Arnold, Wil liam C. Latham, Michael E. Long, W. Allan Royce, Jon Schneeberger. Re search: Paula C. Simmons. Barbara A. Shattuck (Asst.) . Librarian:L. Fern Dame Artists: Walter A. Weber (Naturalist), Peter V. Bianchi Engraving and Printing: Dee J. Andella (Chief); Raymond B. Benzinger, Wil liam W. Smith, James R. Whitney PHOTOGRAPHICSTAFF:Director of Photography: Robert E. Gilka. Assistant Director: Dean Conger. Film Review: Albert Moldvay (Chief); Guy W. Starling (Assistant Chief). PhotographicEquipment:John E. Fletcher (Chief) PictorialResearch:Walter Meayers Edwards (Chief). Photographers:James L. Amos, James P. Blair, Bruce Dale, Otis Imboden, Emory Kristof, Bates Littlehales, George F. Mobley, Robert S. Oakes, Winfield Parks, Joseph J. Scherschel, Robert F. Sisson, James L. Stanfield. Lilian Davidson (Adminis trative Assistant). Photographic Laboratories: Carl M. Shrader (Chief); Milton A. Ford (Associate Chief); Herbert Altemus, Jr., Donald McBain, Claude E. Petrone, Donald E. Stemper. Edwin L. Wisherd (Consultant) RELATED EDUCATIONAL SERVICES OF THE SOCIETY Cartography-Maps,atlases, and globes: Chief Cartographer:Wellman Cham berlin; Associate Chief Cartographer:Athos D. Grazzini; Assistant Chief: William T. Peele. Base Compilation:Charles L. Stern (Supervisor), Charles F. Case, James W. Killion. Name Compilation:Donald A. Jaeger (Supervisor), Charles W. Gotthardt, Jr., Manuela G. Kogutowicz, David L. Moore, George E. Stuart. Map Drawings: Douglas A. Strobel (Supervisor), Robert W. Nor throp, Thomas A. Wall. Map Editing:Ted Dachtera (Supervisor), Russel G. Fritz, Richard K. Rogers, Thomas A. Walsh. Projections: David W. Cook Layout and Design: John F. Dorr, Harry C. Siddeley. Revisions: Richard J. Darley. Administrative Assistant: Catherine M. Hart Books: Merle Severy (Chief); Seymour L. Fishbein (Assistant Chief), Thom as B. Allen, Ross Bennett, Charles O. Hyman, Anne Dirkes Kobor, John J. Putman, David F. Robinson Special Publications:Robert L. Breeden (Chief); Donald J. Crump (Assistant Chief), Josephine B. Bolt, David R. Bridge, Margery G. Dunn, Johanna G. Farren, Ronald M. Fisher, Mary Ann Harrell, Bryan Hodgson, Geraldine Linder, Philip B. Silcott, Joseph A. Taney School Service: Ralph Gray (Chief and Editor of National Geographic School Bulletin); Arthur P. Miller, Jr. (Assistant Chief and Associate Editor of School Bulletin), Jeanne A. Davis, Joseph B. Goodwin, Paul F. Moize, Charles H. Sloan, Janis Knudsen Wheat. EducationalFilmstrips:David S. Boyer (Chief); Ledlie L. Dinsmore, Margaret McKelway Johnson, Bonnie S. Lawrence, Manuel L. Lopez News Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief); Paul Sampson (Assistant Chief), Donald J. Frederick; Isabel Clarke (Assistant) Television: Robert C. Doyle (Chief); David Cooper, Carl W. Harmon, Jr., Sidney Platt, Patricia F. Northrop (Administrative Assistant) Lectures: Joanne M. Hess (Chief); Robert G. Fleegal, Mary W. McKinney, Gerald L. Wiley Explorers Hall: T. Keilor Bentley (Curator-Director) EUROPEANOFFICES:W. Edward Roscher (Associate Secretary and Director), 4 Curzon Place, Mayfair, London, W1Y 8EN, England; Jacques Ostier, 6 rue des Petits-Peres, 75-Paris 2e, France ADVERTISING:Director: William A. Boeger, Jr. National Advertising Man ager: William Turgeon; Executive DirectorofAdvertising Relations: Harley L. McDevitt, 630 Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y. 10020. Regionalmanagers Eastern: Joseph T. Feeney, New York. Midwestern: Robert R. Henn, Chica go. Los Angeles: Jack V. Sheehan. San Francisco:Thomas Martz. Automo tive: John F. Grant, New York. Travel: Gerald A. Van Splinter, New York. International:James L. Till, New York. European: Richard V. Macy, Paris COPYRIGHT© 1970 NATIONALGEOGRAPHICSOCIETY,17THANDM STS. N.W ., WASHINGTON, D.C . 20036. ALLRIGHTSRESERVED.REPRODUCTIONOF THEWHOLEOR ANYPARTOF THE CONTENTSWITHOUTWRITTENPERMISSIONIS PROHIBITED.PRINTEDIN U.S.A. SECOND-CLASS POSTAGEPAIDATWASHINGTON,D. C., ANDADDITIONALMAILINGOFFICES.COVERDESIGNAND TITLEPROTECTEDBYU.S . 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