National Geographic : 1971 May
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY WASHINGTON, D. C. Organized "forthe increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge" GILBERT HOVEY GROSVENOR AT Editor, 1899-1954; President, 1920-1954 RATED Chairman of the Board, 1954-1966 T HE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY is chartered in Washington, D. C ., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. Since 1890 the Society has supported 648 explorations and research projects, adding immeasurably to man's knowledge of earth, sea, and sky. It diffuses this knowledge through its monthly journal, NA TIONAL GEOGRAPHIC; more than 27 million maps distributed each year; its books, globes, atlases, and filmstrips; 30 School Bulletins a year in color; information serv ices to press, radio, and television; technical reports; exhibits from around the world in Explorers Hall; and a nationwide series of programs on television. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. MELVIN M. PAYNE, President ROBERT E. DOYLE, Vice President and Secretary LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Vice President for Research and Exploration GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, Vice President THOMAS M. BEERS, Vice President and Associate Secretary HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, Treasurer OWEN R. ANDERSON, WILLIAM T. BELL, LEONARD J. GRANT, W. EDWARD ROSCHER, C. VERNON SANDERS, Associate Secretaries BOARD OF TRUSTEES MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Chairman of the Board and Editor-in-Chief THOMAS W. McKNEW, Advisory Chairman of the Board LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Former MELVIN M. PAYNE, President, Secretary, Smithsonian Institution National Geographic Society LLOYD H. ELLIOTT, President, LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER George Washington University President, Rockefeller Brothers Fund CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT ROBERT C. SEAMANS, JR. Chairman, Finance Committee, Secretary of the Air Force E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company JUAN T. TRIPPE, Honorary GILBERT M. GROSVENOR Chairman of the Board, Editor, GROSVENOR Pan American World Airways Editor, National Geographic FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH ARTHUR B. HANSON, General. Former Editor, National Geographic Counsel, National Geographic Society JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR. CARYL P. HASKINS, President, Assistant Secretary of Commerce Carnegie Institution of Washington for Science and Technology EMORY S. LAND, Vice Admiral, EARL WARREN, Former U. S. Navy (Ret.), Former President, Chief Justice of the United States Air Transport Association JAMES E. WEBB, Former CURTIS E. LEMAY, Former Chief Administrator, National Aeronautics of Staff, U. S. Air Force and Space Administration H. RANDOLPH MADDOX ALEXANDER WETMORE H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Research Associate, Former Vice President, American Smithsonian InAssocitution Telephone & Telegraph Company LLOYD B. WILSON (Emeritus) WM. McCHESNEY MARTIN, JR. Honorary Board Chairman, Former Chairman, Board of Chesapeake & Potomac Governors, Federal Reserve System Telephone Company BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY CONRAD L. WIRTH, Former Editorial Chairman, Washington Star Director, National Park Service LOUIS B. WRIGHT, Former Director, Folger Shakespeare Library COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Chairman ALEXANDER WETMORE and MELVIN M. PAYNE, Vice Chairmen GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, CARYL P. HASKINS, EMORY S. LAND, THOMAS W. McKNEW, T. DALE STEWART, Senior Scientist, Office of Anthropology, Smithsonian Insti tution, MATTHEW W. STIRLING, Research Associate, Smithsonian Institu tion, JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., FRANK C. WHITMORE, JR., Research Geologist, U. S . Geological Survey, CONRAD L. WIRTH, FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, and PAUL A. ZAHL; BARRY C. BISHOP, Secretary on leave; EDWIN W. SNIDER, Secretary Assistant Secretaries of the Society: EVERETT C. BROWN, FRANK S. DELK, JOHN GOEDEL, JOSEPH B. HOGAN, RAYMOND T. McELLIGOTT, JR., EDWIN W. SNIDER Assistant Treasurer: WARD S. PHELPS Leonard J. Grant, Editorial Assistant to the President; Edwin W. Snider, Richard E. Pearson, Administrative Assistants to the President; Judith N. Dixon, Ad ministrative Assistant to the Chairman and Editor-in-Chief; Lenore W. Kessler, Administrative Assistant to the Advisory Chairman of the Board SECRETARY'SSTAFF:Administrative: Earl Corliss, Jr. Accounting: Jay H. Givans, George F. Fogle, Alfred J. Hayre, William G. McGhee, Martha Allen Baggett. Statistics: Thomas M. Kent. Payroll and Retirement: Howard R. Hudson (Super visor); Mary L. Whitmore, Dorothy L. Dameron (Assistants). Procurement: J. P. M. Johnston, Robert G. Corey, Shelia H. Immel, Margaret A. Shearer. Membership Research: Charles T. Kneeland. Membership Fulfillment: Geneva S. Robinson, Paul B. Tylor, Peter F. Woods. Computer Center: Lewis P. Lowe. Promotion:E. M. Pusey, Jr., Robert J. Warfel. Printing:Joe M. Barlett, Frank S. Oliverio. Production Control:James P. Kelly.Personnel:James B. Mahon, Adrian L. Loftin, Jr., Glenn G. Pepperman, Nellie E. Sinclair. Medical: Thomas L. Hartman, M. D. Translation:Zbigniew Jan Lutyk COVER: Gronk, a pet Andean condor with 9t/2-foot wing spread, frolics with his master (page 684). KODACHROME BY LIBBYMcGAHAN© N.G.S. POSTMASTER: SEND CHANGE OF ADDRESS FORM 3579 AND UNDELIVERED COPIES TO NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE, 17TH AND M STS. N.W., WASHINGTON, D. C. 20036 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVILLEBELL GROSVENOR Editor-in-Chief and Board Chairman MELVIN M. PAYNE President of the Society GILBERT M. GROSVENOR Editor FRANC SHOR, JOHN SCOFIELD Associate Editors Senior Assistant Editors Allan C. Fisher, Jr., Kenneth MacLeish, Robert L. Conly Assistant Editors: Jules B. Billard, Andrew H. Brown, James Cerruti, W. E. Garrett, Edward J. Linehan, Carolyn Bennett Patterson, Howell Walker, Kenneth F. Weaver Senior EditorialStaff: Rowe Findley, William Graves, Jay Johnston, Stuart E. Jones, Robert P. Jordan, Joseph Judge, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Samuel W. Matthews, Bart McDowell; Senior Scientist: Paul A. Zahl ForeignEditorialStaff: Luis Marden (Chief); Thomas J. Abercrombie, Howard La Fay, Volkmar Wentzel, Peter T. White EditorialStaff: Harvey Arden, Thomas Y. Canby, Louis de la Haba, Mike W. Edwards, William S. Ellis, Alice J. Hall, Werner Janney, Jerry Kline, John L. McIntosh, Elizabeth A. Moize, Ethel A. Starbird, Gordon Young Editorial Layout: Howard E. Paine (Chief); Charles C. Uhl, John M. Lavery Geographic Art: William N. Palmstrom (Chief). Artists: Lisa Biganzoli, Wil liam H. Bond, John W. Lothers, Robert C. Magis, Robert W. Nicholson, Ned M. Seidler. CartographicArtists: Victor J. Kelley, Snejinka Stefanoff. Re search: Walter Q. Crowe (Supervisor), Virginia L. Baza, George W. Beatty, John D. Garst, Jean B. McConville, Dorothy A. Nicholson, Isaac Ortiz (Production). Marie L. Barnes (Administrative Assistant) Editorial Research: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Wendt (Associate Chief), Alice M. Bowsher, Ledlie L. Dinsmore, Margaret L. Dugdale, Jan Holderness, Levenia Loder, Frances H. Parker GeographicResearch:GeorgeCrossette (Chief); Newton V. Blakeslee (Assist ant Chief), Leon J. Canova, Bette Joan Goss, Lesley B. Lane, John A. Weeks Phototypography:John E. McConnell (Chief); Lawrence F. Ludwig (Assistant Chief) Library: Virginia Carter Hills (Librarian); Margery K. Barkdull (Assistant Librarian), Melba Barnes, Louise A. Robinson, Esther Ann Manion (Librar ian Emeritus) Editorial Administration:Joyce W. McKean, Assistant to the Editor; Harriet Carey, Virginia H. Finnegan, Winifred M. Myers, Shirley Neff, Betty T. San borne, Inez D. Wilkinson (Editorial Assistants); Dorothy M. Corson (In dexes); Rosalie K. Millerd, Lorine Wendling (Files); Evelyn Fox (Transpor tation); Carolyn F. Clewell (Correspondence); Jeanne S. Duiker (Archives) ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF:Illustrations Editor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Associate Illustrations Editor: Thomas R. Smith. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl. Assistant IllustrationsEditors:Mary S. Griswold, O. Louis Mazzatenta. Lay out and Production:H. Edward Kim (Chief). Senior Picture Editors: Char lene Murphy, Robert S. Patton. PictureEditors: David L. Arnold, Michael E. Long, W. Allan Royce, Jon Schneeberger. Research: Paula C. Simmons. Barbara A. Shattuck (Asst.). Librarian:L. Fern Dame Artists: Walter A. Weber (Naturalist), Peter V. Bianchi Engraving and Printing:Dee J. Andella (Chief); Raymond B. Benzinger, John R. Metcalfe, William W. Smith, James R. Whitney PHOTOGRAPHIC STAFF:Director of Photography: Robert E. Gilka. Assistant Director: Dean Conger. Film Review: Albert Moldvay (Chief); Guy W. Starling (Assistant Chief). PhotographicEquipment:John E. Fletcher (Chief), Donald McBain. PictorialResearch:Walter Meayers Edwards (Chief). Pho tographers:James L. Amos, James P. Blair, Bruce Dale, Dick Durrance II, Otis Imboden, Emory Kristof, Bates Littlehales, George F. Mobley, Robert S. Oakes, Winfield Parks, Joseph J. Scherschel, Robert F. Sisson, James L. Stanfield. Lilian Davidson (Administration). Photographic Laboratories: Carl M. Shrader (Chief); Milton A. Ford (Associate Chief); Herbert Altemus, Jr., David H. Chisman, Claude E. Petrone, Donald E. Stemper RELATED EDUCATIONAL SERVICES OF THE SOCIETY Cartography-Maps, atlases, and globes: Chief Cartographer: Wellman Cham berlin;Associate Chief:William T. Peele. Base Compilation:Charles L. Stern (Supervisor), Charles F. Case, James W. Killion. Name Compilation:Donald A. Jaeger (Supervisor), Charles W. Gotthardt, Jr., Manuela G. Kogutowicz, David L. Moore. Map Drawings:Douglas A. Strobel (Supervisor), Robert W. Northrop, Tibor G. Toth, Thomas A. Wall. Map Editing:Ted Dachtera (Supervisor), Russel G. Fritz, Thomas A. Walsh, Projections: David W. Cook. Layout and Design: John F. Dorr, Harry C. Siddeley. Revisions: Richard J. Darley. Archeology: George E. Stuart. PrintingControl: Richard K. Rogers. AdministrativeAssistant: Catherine M. Hart Books: Merle Severy (Chief); Seymour L. Fishbein (Assistant Chief), Thom as B. Allen, Ross Bennett, Charles 0. Hyman, Anne Dirkes Kobor, John J. Putman, David F. Robinson, Verla Lee Smith Special Publications: Robert L. Breeden (Chief); Donald J. Crump (Assistant Chief), Josephine B. Bolt, David R. Bridge, Margery G. Dunn, Johanna G. Farren, Ronald M. Fisher, Mary Ann Harrell, Bryan Hodgson, Geraldine Linder, Philip B. Silcott, Joseph A. Taney School Service: Ralph Gray (Chief and Editor of National Geographic School Bulletin); Arthur P. Miller, Jr. (Assistant Chief and Associate Editor of School Bulletin), Joseph B. Goodwin, Ellen Joan Hurst, Paul F. Moize, Charles H. Sloan, Janis Knudsen Wheat. EducationalFilmstrips: David S. Boyer (Chief); Margaret McKelway Johnson, Bonnie S. Lawrence News Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief); Paul Sampson (Assistant Chief), Donald J. Frederick, William J. O'Neill, Robert C. Radcliffe; Isabel Clarke Television: Robert C. Doyle (Chief); David Cooper, Carl W. Harmon, Jr., Sidney Platt, Patricia F. Northrop (Administrative Assistant) Lectures: Joanne M. Hess (Chief); Robert G. Fleegal, Mary W. McKinney, Gerald L. Wiley Explorers Hall: T. Keilor Bentley (Curator-Director) EUROPEANOFFICES:W. 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