National Geographic : 1971 Jul
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 2 WASHINGTON, D. C. Z Organized "forthe increase and -, . i diffusion of geographic knowledge" GILBERT HOVEY GROSVENOR R 1 Editor, 1899-1954; President, 1920-1954 " ATO Chairman of the Board, 1954-1966 THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY is chartered in Washington, D. C., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. Since 1890 the Society has supported 668 explorations and research projects, adding immeasurably to man's knowledge of earth, sea, and sky. It diffuses this knowledge through its monthly journal, NA TIONAL GEOGRAPHIC; more than 27 million maps distributed each year; its books, globes, atlases, and filmstrips; 30 School Bulletins a year in color; information serv ices to press, radio, and television; technical reports; exhibits from around the world in Explorers Hall; and a nationwide series of programs on television. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. MELVIN M. PAYNE, President ROBERT E. DOYLE, Vice President and Secretary LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Vice President for Research and Exploration GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, Vice President THOMAS M. BEERS, Vice President and Associate Secretary HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, Treasurer OWEN R. ANDERSON, WILLIAM T. BELL, LEONARD J. GRANT, W. EDWARD ROSCHER, C. VERNON SANDERS, Associate Secretaries BOARD OF TRUSTEES MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Chairman of the Board and Editor-in-Chief THOMAS W. McKNEW, Advisory Chairman of the Board LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Former Secretary, Smithsonian Institution LLOYD H. ELLIOTT, President, George Washington University CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT Chairman, Finance Committee, E. I . du Pont de Nemours & Company GILBERT M. GROSVENOR Editor, National Geographic ARTHUR B. HANSON, General Counsel, National Geographic Society CARYL P. HASKINS, President, Carnegie Institution of Washington EMORY S. LAND, Vice Admiral, U. S . Navy (Ret.), Former President, Air Transport Association CURTIS E. LEMAY, Former Chief of Staff, U. S. Air Force H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Former Vice President, American Telephone & Telegraph Company WM. McCHESNEY MARTIN, JR. Former Chairman, Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Editorial Chairman, Washington Star MELVIN M. PAYNE, President, National Geographic Society LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER President, Rockefeller Brothers Fund ROBERT C. SEAMANS, JR. Secretary of the Air Force JUAN T. TRIPPE, Honorary Chairman of the Board, Pan American World Airways FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Former Editor, National Geographic JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR. Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Science and Technology EARL WARREN, Former Chief Justice of the United States JAMES E. WEBB, Former Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration ALEXANDER WETMORE Research Associate, Smithsonian Institution LLOYD B. WILSON (Emeritus) Honorary Board Chairman, Chesapeake & Potomac Telephone Company CONRAD L. WIRTH, Former Director, National Park Service LOUIS B. WRIGHT, Former Director, Folger Shakespeare Library COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Chairman ALEXANDER WETMORE and MELVIN M. PAYNE, Vice Chairmen GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, CARYL P. HASKINS, EMORY S. LAND, THOMAS W. McKNEW, T. DALE STEWART, Senior Scientist, Office of Anthropology, Smithsonian Insti tution, MATTHEW W. STIRLING, Research Associate, Smithsonian Institu tion, JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., FRANK C. WHITMORE, JR., Research Geologist, U.S . Geological Survey, CONRAD L. WIRTH, FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, and PAUL A. ZAHL; BARRY C. BISHOP, Secretary on leave; EDWIN W. SNIDER, Secretary Assistant Secretaries of the Society: EVERETT C. BROWN, FRANK S. DELK, JOHN GOEDEL, JOSEPH B. HOGAN, RAYMOND T. McELLIGOTT, JR., EDWIN W. SNIDER Assistant Treasurer: WARD S. PHELPS Leonard J. Grant, Editorial Assistant to the President; Edwin W. Snider, Richard E. Pearson, Administrative Assistants to the President; Judith N. Dixon, Ad ministrative Assistant to the Chairman and Editor-in-Chief; Lenore W. Kessler, Administrative Assistant to the Advisory Chairman of the Board SECRETARY'SSTAFF:Administrative: Earl Corliss, Jr. Accounting: Jay H. Givans, George F. Fogle, Alfred J. Hayre, William G. McGhee, Martha Allen Baggett. Statistics: Thomas M. Kent. Payroll and Retirement: Howard R. Hudson (Super visor); Mary L. Whitmore, Dorothy L. Dameron (Assistants). Procurement: J. P. M . Johnston, Robert G. Corey, Sheila H. Immel, Margaret A. Shearer. Membership Research: Charles T. Kneeland. Membership Fulfillment: Geneva S. Robinson, Paul B. Tylor, Peter F. Woods. Computer Center: Lewis P. Lowe. Promotion: E. M . Pusey, Jr., Robert J. Warfel. Printing:Joe M. Barlett, Frank S. Oliverio. ProductionControl:James P. Kelly. Personnel:James B. Mahon, Adrian L. Loftin, Jr., Glenn G. Pepperman, Nellie E. Sinclair. Medical: Thomas L. Hartman, M. D. Translation: Zbigniew Jan Lutyk 4 COVER: Astronaut Alan B. Shepard, Jr., assembles a core tube to sample moon soil (pages 136-48). NASA POSTMASTER: SEND CHANGE OF ADDRESS FORM 3579 AND UNDELIVEREDCOPIES TO NATIONAL GEOGRAPHICMAGAZINE, 17TH AND M STS. N.W., WASHINGTON, D. C. 20036 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVILLEBELLGROSVENOR Editor-in-Chief and Board Chairman MELVIN M. PAYNE President of the Society GILBERT M. GROSVENOR Editor FRANC SHOR, JOHN SCOFIELD Associate Editors Senior Assistant Editors Allan C. Fisher, Jr., Kenneth MacLeish, Robert L. Conly Assistant Editors: Jules B. Billard, Andrew H. Brown, James Cerruti, W. E. Garrett, Edward J. Linehan, Carolyn Bennett Patterson, Howell Walker, Kenneth F. Weaver Senior EditorialStaff: Rowe Findley, William Graves, Jay Johnston, Stuart E. Jones, Robert P. Jordan, Joseph Judge, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Samuel W. Matthews, Bart McDowell; Senior Scientist: Paul A. Zahl ForeignEditorial Staff: Luis Marden (Chief); Thomas J. Abercrombie, Howard La Fay, Volkmar Wentzel, Peter T. White EditorialStaff: Harvey Arden, Thomas Y. Canby, Louis de la Haba, Mike W. Edwards, William S. Ellis, Alice J. Hall, Werner Janney, Jerry Kline, John L. McIntosh, Elizabeth A. Moize, Ethel A. Starbird, Gordon Young EditorialLayout: Howard E. Paine (Chief); Charles C. Uhl, John M. Lavery GeographicArt: William N. Palmstrom (Chief). Artists: Lisa Biganzoli, Wil liam H. Bond, John W. Lothers, Robert C. Magis, Robert W. Nicholson, Ned M. Seidler. CartographicArtists: Victor J. Kelley, Snejinka Stefanoff. Re search:Walter Q. Crowe (Supervisor), Virginia L. Baza, George W. Beatty, John D. Garst, Jean B. McConville, Dorothy A. Nicholson, Isaac Ortiz (Production). Marie L. Barnes (Administrative Assistant) EditorialResearch: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Wendt (Associate Chief), Alice M. Bowsher, Margaret L. Dugdale, Jan Holderness, Levenia Loder, Frances H. Parker Geographic Research: George Crossette (Chief); Newton V. Blakeslee (Assist ant Chief), Leon J. Canova, Bette Joan Goss, Lesley B. Lane, John A. Weeks Phototypography:John E. McConnell (Chief); Lawrence F. Ludwig (Assistant Chief) Library: Virginia Carter Hills (Librarian); Margery K. Barkdull (Assistant Librarian), Melba Barnes, Louise A. Robinson, Esther Ann Manion (Librar ian Emeritus) EditorialAdministration: Joyce W. McKean, Assistant to the Editor; Harriet Carey, Virginia H. Finnegan, Winifred M. Myers, Shirley Neff, Betty T. San borne, Inez D. Wilkinson (Editorial Assistants); Dorothy M. Corson (In dexes); Rosalie K. Millerd, Lorine Wendling (Files); Evelyn Fox, Dolores Kennedy (Transportation); Carolyn F. Clewell (Correspondence); Jeanne S. Duiker (Archives) ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF:Illustrations Editor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Associate Illustrations Editor: Thomas R. Smith. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl. Assistant Illustrations Editors: Mary S. Griswold, O. Louis Mazzatenta, Charlene Murphy, Robert S. Patton. Layout and Production:H. Edward Kim (Chief). Picture Editors: David L. Arnold, Michael E. Long, Elie S. Rogers, W. Allan Royce, Jon Schneeberger, C. William Snead. Research: Paula C. Simmons. Barbara A. Shattuck (Asst.) . Librarian:L. Fern Dame Artists: Walter A. Weber (Naturalist), Peter V. Bianchi Engraving and Printing:Dee J. Andella (Chief); Raymond B. Benzinger, John R. Metcalfe, William W. Smith, James R. Whitney PHOTOGRAPHICSTAFF:Director of Photography: Robert E. Gilka. Assistant Director: Dean Conger. Film Review: Albert Moldvay (Chief); Guy W. Starling (Assistant Chief). PhotographicEquipment:JohnE. Fletcher (Chief), Donald McBain. PictorialResearch: Walter Meayers Edwards (Chief). Pho tographers:James L. Amos, James P. Blair, Bruce Dale, Dick Durrance II, Otis Imboden, Emory Kristof, Bates Littlehales, George F. Mobley, Robert S. Oakes, Winfield Parks, Joseph J. Scherschel, Robert F. Sisson, James L. Stanfield. Lilian Davidson (Administration). PhotographicLaboratories:Carl M. Shrader (Chief); Milton A. Ford (Associate Chief); Herbert Altemus, Jr., David H. Chisman, Claude E. Petrone, Donald E. Stemper RELATED EDUCATIONAL SERVICES OF THE SOCIETY Cartography-Maps, atlases, and globes: Chief Cartographer:Wellman Cham berlin; Associate Chief: William T. Peele. Assistant Chief: David W. Cook. Base Compilation:Charles L. Stern (Supervisor), Charles F. Case, James W. Killion. Name Compilation:Donald A. Jaeger (Supervisor), Charles W. Gott hardt, Jr., Manuela G. Kogutowicz, David L. Moore. Map Drawings:Doug las A. Strobel (Supervisor), Robert W. Northrop, Tibor G. Toth, Thomas A. Wall. Map Editing: Ted Dachtera (Supervisor), Russel G. Fritz, Thomas A. Walsh. Layout and Design: John F. Dorr. Revisions: Richard J. Darley. Ar cheology: George E. Stuart. Printing Control: Richard K. Rogers. Adminis trative Assistant: Catherine M. Hart Books: Merle Severy (Chief); Seymour L. Fishbein (Assistant Chief), Thom as B. Allen, Ross Bennett, Charles O. Hyman, Anne Dirkes Kobor, John J. Putman, David F. Robinson, Verla Lee Smith Special Publications:Robert L. Breeden (Chief); Donald J. Crump (Assistant Chief), Josephine B. Bolt, David R. Bridge, Margery G. Dunn, Johanna G. Farren, Ronald M. Fisher, Mary Ann Harrell, Bryan Hodgson, Geraldine Linder, Philip B. Silcott, Joseph A. Taney School Service: Ralph Gray (Chief and Editor of National Geographic School Bulletin); Arthur P. Miller, Jr. (Assistant Chief and Associate Editor of School Bulletin), Joseph B. Goodwin, Ellen Joan Hurst, Paul F. Moize, Charles H. Sloan, Janis Knudsen Wheat. Educational Filmstrips:David S. Boyer (Chief); Margaret McKelway Johnson News Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief); Paul Sampson (Assistant Chief), Donald J. Frederick, William J. O'Neill, Robert C. Radcliffe; Isabel Clarke Television: Robert C. Doyle (Chief); David Cooper, Carl W. Harmon, Jr., Sidney Platt, Patricia F. Northrop (Administrative Assistant) Lectures: Joanne M. Hess (Chief); Robert G. Fleegal, Mary W. McKinney, Gerald L. Wiley Explorers Hall: T. Keilor Bentley (Curator-Director) EUROPEANOFFICES:W. Edward Roscher (Associate Secretary and Director), Jennifer Moseley (Assistant), 4 Curzon Place, Mayfair, London, WlY 8EN, England; Jacques Ostier, 6 rue des Petits-Peres, 75-Paris 2e, France ADVERTISING: Director:William A. Boeger, Jr. NationalAdvertising Manag er: William Turgeon, 630 Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y. 10020. Regional man agers-Eastern: George W. Kellner, New York. Midwestern: Robert R. 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