National Geographic : 1971 Oct
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY /c WASHINGTON, D. C. Organized "for the increaseand diffusion of geographic knowledge" GILBERT HOVEY GROSVENOR .. ^ _ '6 Editor, 1899-1954; President, 1920-1954 Oh-A TED P ., Chairmanof the Board, 1954-1966 T HE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY is chartered in Washington, D. C ., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. Since 1890 the Society has supported 716 explorations and research projects, adding immeasurably to man's knowledge of earth, sea, and sky. It diffuses this knowledge through its monthly journal, NA TIONAL GEOGRAPHIC; more than 27 million maps distributed each year; its books, globes, atlases, and filmstrips; 30 School Bulletins a year in color; information serv ices to press, radio, and television; technical reports; exhibits from around the world in Explorers Hall; and a nationwide series of programs on television. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. MELVIN M. PAYNE, President ROBERT E. DOYLE, Vice President and Secretary LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Vice President for Research and Exploration GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, Vice President THOMAS M. BEERS, Vice President and Associate Secretary HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, Treasurer OWEN R. ANDERSON, WILLIAM T. BELL, LEONARD J. GRANT, W. EDWARD ROSCHER, C. VERNON SANDERS, Associate Secretaries BOARD OF TRUSTEES MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Chairman of the Board and Editor-in-Chief THOMAS W. McKNEW, Advisory Chairman of the Board LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Former Secretary, Smithsonian Institution LLOYD H. ELLIOTT, President, George Washington University CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT Chairman, Finance Committee, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company GILBERT M. GROSVENOR Editor, National Geographic ARTHUR B. HANSON, General Counsel, National Geographic Society CARYL P. HASKINS, Former President, Carnegie Institution of Washington EMORY S. LAND, Vice Admiral, U. S. Navy (Ret.), Former President, Air Transport Association CURTIS E. LEMAY, Former Chief of Staff, U. S. Air Force H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Former Vice President, American Telephone & Telegraph Company WM. McCHESNEY MARTIN, JR. Former Chairman, Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Editorial Chairman, Washington Star MELVIN M. PAYNE, President, National Geographic Society LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER President, Rockefeller Brothers Fund ROBERT C. SEAMANS, JR. Secretary of the Air Force JUAN T. TRIPPE, Honorary Chairman of the Board, Pan American World Airways FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Former Editor, National Geographic JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR. Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Science and Technology EARL WARREN, Former Chief Justice of the United States JAMES E. WEBB, Former Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration ALEXANDER WETMORE Research Associate, Smithsonian Institution LLOYD B. WILSON (Emeritus) Honorary Board Chairman, Chesapeake & Potomac Telephone Company CONRAD L. WIRTH, Former Director, National Park Service LOUIS B. WRIGHT, Former Director, Folger Shakespeare Library COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Chairman ALEXANDER WETMORE and MELVIN M. PAYNE, Vice Chairmen GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, CARYL P. HASKINS, EMORY S. LAND, THOMAS W. McKNEW, T. DALE STEWART, Physical Anthropologist Emeritus, Smithsonian Insti tution, MATTHEW W. STIRLING, Research Associate, Smithsonian Institu tion, JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., FRANK C. WHITMORE, JR., Research Geologist, U. S. Geological Survey, CONRAD L. WIRTH, FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, and PAULA. ZAHL; BARRY C. BISHOP, Secretary on leave; EDWIN W. SNIDER, Secretary Assistant Secretaries of the Society: EVERETT C. BROWN, FRANK S. DELK, JOHN GOEDEL, JOSEPH B. HOGAN, RAYMOND T. McELLIGOTT, JR., EDWIN W. SNIDER Assistant Treasurer: WARD S. PHELPS Leonard J. Grant, Editorial Assistant to the President; Edwin W. Snider, Richard E. Pearson, Administrative Assistants to the President; Judith N. Dixon, Ad ministrative Assistant to the Chairman and Editor-in-Chief; Lenore W. Kessler, Administrative Assistant to the Advisory Chairman of the Board SECRETARY'S STAFF:Administrative: Earl Corliss, Jr. Accounting: Jay H. Givans, George F. Fogle, Alfred J. Hayre, William G. McGhee, Martha Allen Baggett. Statistics:Thomas M. Kent. Payrolland Retirement: Howard R. Hudson (Super visor); Mary L. Whitmore, Dorothy L. Dameron (Assistants). Procurement: J. P . M . Johnston, Robert G. Corey, Sheila H. Immel. Membership Research: Charles T. Kneeland. Membership Fulfillment: Geneva S. Robinson, Paul B. Tylor, Peter F. Woods. Computer Center: Lewis P. Lowe. Promotion: E. M. Pusey, Jr., Robert J. Warfel. Printing:Joe M. Barlett, Frank S. Oliverio. Produc tion Control: James P. Kelly. Personnel:James B. Mahon, Adrian L. Loftin. Jr., Glenn G. Pepperman, Nellie E. Sinclair. Medical: Thomas L. Hartman, M. D. Translation:Zbigniew Jan Lutyk 4 COVER: A god's name, inked on face and shawl, pro claims a Hindu's faith (pages 450-51). RAGHUBIRSINGH© N.G.S. POSTMASTER: SEND CHANGE OF ADDRESS FORM 3579 AND UNDELIVEREDCOPIES TO NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE, 17TH AND M STS. N.W., WASHINGTON,D. C. 20036 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVILLEBELLGROSVENOR Editor-in-Chief and Board Chairman MELVIN M. PAYNE President of the Society GILBERT M. GROSVENOR Editor FRANC SHOR, JOHN SCOFIELD Associate Editors Senior Assistant Editors Allan C. Fisher, Jr., Kenneth MacLeish, Robert L. Conly, W. E. Garrett Assistant Editors: Jules B. Billard, Andrew H. Brown, James Cerruti, Edward J. Linehan, Carolyn Bennett Patterson, Howell Walker, Kenneth F. Weaver Senior Editorial Staff: Rowe Findley, William Graves, Jay Johnston, Stuart E. Jones, Robert P. Jordan, Joseph Judge, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Samuel W. Matthews, Bart McDowell; Senior Scientist: Paul A. Zahl Foreign Editorial Staff: Luis Marden (Chief); Thomas J. Abercrombie, Howard La Fay, Volkmar Wentzel, Peter T. White Editorial Staff: Harvey Arden, Thomas Y. Canby, Louis de la Haba, Mike W. Edwards, William S. Ellis, Noel Grove, Alice J. Hall, Werner Janney, Jerry Kline, John L. McIntosh, Elizabeth A. Moize, Ethel A. Starbird, Gordon Young Editorial Layout: Howard E. Paine (Chief); Charles C. Uhl, John M. Lavery Geographic Art: William N. Palmstrom (Chief). Artists: Peter V. Bianchi, Lisa Biganzoli, William H. Bond, John W. Lothers, Robert C. Magis, Robert W. Nicholson, Ned M. Seidler. CartographicArtists:Victor J. Kelley, Snejinka Stefanoff. Research:Walter Q. Crowe (Supervisor), Virginia L. Baza, George W. Beatty, John D. Garst, Jean B. McConville, Dorothy A. Nicholson, Isaac Ortiz (Production). Marie L. Barnes (Administrative Assistant) EditorialResearch: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Wendt (Associate Chief), Alice M. Bowsher, Jan Holderness, Levenia Loder, Frances H. Parker Geographic Research: George Crossette (Chief); Newton V. Blakeslee (Assist ant Chief), Leon J. Canova, Bette Joan Goss, Lesley B. Lane, John A. Weeks Phototypography:JohnE. McConnell (Chief); Lawrence F. Ludwig (Assistant Chief) Library: Virginia Carter Hills (Librarian); Melba Barnes, Louise A. Robin son, Esther Ann Manion (Librarian Emeritus) EditorialAdministration: Joyce W. McKean, Assistant to the Editor; Harriet Carey, Virginia H. Finnegan, Winifred M. Myers, Shirley Neff, Inez D. Wil kinson (Editorial Assistants); Dorothy M. Corson (Indexes); Rosalie K. Millerd, Lorine Wendling (Files); Evelyn Fox, Dolores Kennedy (Transporta tion); Carolyn F. Clewell (Correspondence); Jeanne S. Duiker (Archives) ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF:Illustrations Editor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Associate Illustrations Editor: Thomas R. Smith. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl. Assistant Illustrations Editors: Mary S. Griswold, O. Louis Mazzatenta, Charlene Murphy, Robert S. Patton. Layout andProduction:H. Edward Kim (Chief). Picture Editors:David L. Arnold, Michael E. Long, Elie S. Rogers, W. Allan Royce, Jon Schneeberger, C. William Snead. Research: Paula C. Simmons. Barbara A. Shattuck (Asst.) . Librarian:L. Fern Dame Engraving and Printing: Dee J. Andella (Chief); John R. Metcalfe, William W. Smith, James R. Whitney PHOTOGRAPHIC STAFF:Director of Photography: Robert E. Gilka. Assistant Director: Dean Conger. Film Review: Albert Moldvay (Chief); Guy W. Starling (Assistant Chief). PhotographicEquipment:JohnE. Fletcher (Chief), Donald McBain. PictorialResearch:Walter Meayers Edwards (Chief). Pho tographers:James L. Amos, James P. Blair, Bruce Dale, Dick Durrance II, Otis Imboden, Emory Kristof, Bates Littlehales, George F. Mobley, Robert S. Oakes, Winfield Parks, Joseph J. Scherschel, Robert F. Sisson, James L. Stanfield. Lilian Davidson (Administration). Photographic Laboratories:Carl M. Shrader (Chief); Milton A. Ford (Associate Chief); Herbert Altemus, Jr., David H. Chisman, Claude E. Petrone, Donald E. Stemper RELATED EDUCATIONAL SERVICES OF THE SOCIETY Cartography: William T. Peele (Chief); David W. Cook (Assistant Chief). CartographicStaff: Margery K. Barkdull, Charles F. Case, Ted Dachtera, Richard J. Darley, John F. Dorr, Russel G. Fritz, Richard R. Furno, Charles W. Gotthardt, Jr., Catherine M. Hart, Donald A. Jaeger, Harry D. Kauhane, James W. Killion, Manuela G. Kogutowicz, Charles L. Miller, David L. Moore, Robert W. Northrop, Richard K. Rogers, John F. Shupe, Charles L. Stern, Douglas A. Strobel, George E. 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Macy, 21 rue Jean-Mermoz, Paris 8e, France. COPYRIGHT© 1971 NATIONALGEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY, 17TH AND M STS. N.W ., WASHINGTON, D. C. 20036. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. REPRODUCTION OF THE WHOLE OR ANY PART OF THE CONTENTS WITHOUTWRITTENPERMISSION IS PRO HIBITED. PRINTED IN U.S.A. SECOND-CLASS POSTAGE PAID AT WASHINGTON, D. C., AND ADDITIONAL MAILINGOFFICES. COVER DESIGN AND TITLE PROTECT ED BY U. S. AND FOREIGN TRADEMARKREGISTRATIONS.$9 A YEAR, $1 A COPY.