National Geographic : 1973 Mar
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC . SOCIETY 2; WASHINGTON, D. C. z . Organized "forthe increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge" GILBERT HOVEY GROSVENOR Editor, 1899-1954; President, 1920-1954 RATED o Chairman of the Board, 1954-1966 THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY is chartered in Washington, D. C., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. Since 1890 the Society has supported 845 explorations and research projects, adding immeasurably to man's knowledge of earth, sea, and sky. It diffuses this knowledge through its monthly journal, NA TIONAL GEOGRAPHIC; more than 30 million maps distributed each year; its books, globes, atlases, and filmstrips; 30 School Bulletins a year in color; information ser vices to press, radio, and television; technical reports; exhibits from around the world in Explorers Hall; and a nationwide series of programs on television. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. MELVIN M. PAYNE, President ROBERT E. DOYLE, Vice President and Secretary LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Vice President for Research and Exploration GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, Vice President THOMAS M. BEERS, Vice President and Associate Secretary HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, Treasurer OWEN R. ANDERSON, WILLIAM T. BELL, LEONARD J. GRANT, W. EDWARD ROSCHER, C. VERNON SANDERS, Associate Secretaries BOARD OF TRUSTEES MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Chairman of the Board and Editor-in-Chief THOMAS W. McKNEW, Advisory Chairman of the Board LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Former Secretary, Smithsonian Institution LLOYD H. ELLIOTT, President, George Washington University CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT Chairman, Finance Committee, E. I . du Pont de Nemours & Company GILBERT M. GROSVENOR Editor, National Geographic ARTHUR B. HANSON, General Counsel, National Geographic Society CARYL P. HASKINS, Former President, Carnegie Institution of Washington CARLISLE H. HUMELSINE President, The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation CURTIS E. LEMAY, Former Chief of Staff, U. S. Air Force H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Former Vice President, American Telephone & Telegraph Company WM. McCHESNEY MARTIN, JR. Former Chairman, Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Former Editor, Washington Star MELVIN M. PAYNE, President, National Geographic Society LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER President, Rockefeller Brothers Fund ROBERT C. SEAMANS, JR. Secretary of the Air Force JUAN T. TRIPPE, Honorary Chairman of the Board, Pan American World Airways FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Former Editor, National Geographic JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., Former Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Science and Technology EARL WARREN, Former Chief Justice of the United States JAMES E. WEBB, Former Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration ALEXANDER WETMORE Research Associate, Smithsonian Institution LLOYD B. WILSON (Emeritus) Honorary Board Chairman, Chesapeake & Potomac Telephone Company CONRAD L. WIRTH, Former Director, National Park Service LOUIS B. WRIGHT, Former Director, Folger Shakespeare Library COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Chairman ALEXANDER WETMORE and MELVIN M. PAYNE, Vice Chairmen EDWIN W. SNIDER, Secretary BARRY C. BISHOP, National Geographic Staff, GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, CARYL P. HASKINS, THOMAS W. McKNEW, T. DALE STEWART, Physical Anthropologist Emeritus, Smith sonian Institution, MATTHEW W. STIRLING, Research Associate, Smithson ian Institution, JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., FRANK C. WHITMORE, JR., Research Geologist, U. S. Geological Survey, CONRAD L. WIRTH, FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, and PAUL A. ZAHL Assistant Secretaries of the Society: FRANK S. DELK, JOSEPH B. HOGAN, RAYMOND T. McELLIGOTT, JR., EDWIN W. SNIDER Assistant Treasurer: WARD S. PHELPS Leonard J. Grant, Editorial Assistant to the President; Edwin W. Snider, Richard E. Pearson, Administrative Assistants to the President; Judith N. Dixon, Ad ministrative Assistant to the Chairman and Editor-in-Chief; Lenore W. Kessler, Administrative Assistant to the Advisory Chairman of the Board SECRETARY'SSTAFF:Administrative: Earl Corliss, Jr., Harriet Carey, Frederick C. Gale. Accounting: Jay H. Givans, George F. Fogle, Alfred J. Hayre, William G. McGhee, Martha Allen Baggett. Statistics: Thomas M. Kent. Payroll and Retire ment: Howard R. Hudson (Supervisor); Mary L. Whitmore, Dorothy L. Dameron (Assistants). Procurement: J. P . M. Johnston, Thomas L. Fletcher, Robert G. Corey, Sheila H. Immel. Membership Research: Charles T. Kneeland. Member ship Fulfillment: Geneva S. Robinson, Paul B. Tylor, Peter F. Woods. Computer Center: Lewis P. Lowe. Promotion: Robert J. Warfel, Towne Windom. Printing: Joe M. Barlett, Frank S. Oliverio. Production Control: James P. Kelly. Person nel: James B. Mahon, Adrian L. Loftin, Jr., Glenn G. Pepperman, Nellie E. Sinclair. Medical: Thomas L. Hartman, M. D. Translation: Zbigniew Jan Lutyk S COVER: Eskimo whalers ply slushy waters off Alaska in their walrus-skin boat (page 348). EMORY KRISTOF POSTMASTER: SEND CHANGE OF ADDRESS FORM 3579 AND UNDELIVEREDCOPIES TO NATIONALGEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE, 17TH AND M STS. N.W., WASHINGTON, D. G. 20036 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVILLEBELLGROSVENOR Editor-in-Chief and Board Chairman MELVIN M. PAYNE President of the Society GILBERT M. GROSVENOR Editor FRANC SHOR, JOHN SCOFIELD Associate Editors Senior Assistant Editors James Cerruti, W. E. Garrett, Kenneth MacLeish Jules B. Billard, Robert L. Conly, Allan C. Fisher, Jr. Assistant Editors: Andrew H. Brown, Joseph Judge, Edward J. Linehan, Samuel W. Matthews, Carolyn Bennett Patterson, Howell Walker, Kenneth F. Weaver Senior Editorial Staf: William S. Ellis, Rowe Findley, William Graves, Bryan Hodgson, Robert P. Jordan, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Bart McDowell, John J. Putman, Gordon Young; Senior Scientist: Paul A. Zahl Foreign Editorial Staff: Luis Marden (Chief); Thomas J. Abercrombie, David S. Boyer, Howard La Fay, Volkmar Wentzel, Peter T. White Editorial Staff: Harvey Arden, Kent Britt, Thomas Y. Canby, Louis de la Ha ba, Mike W. Edwards, Noel Grove, Alice J. Hall, Werner Janney, Jerry Kline, Michael E. Long, John L. McIntosh, Elizabeth A. Moize, Ethel A. Starbird EditorialLayout: Howard E. Paine (Chief); Charles C. Uhl Geographic Art: William N. Palmstrom (Chief). Artists: Peter V. Bianchi, Lisa Biganzoli, William H. Bond, John W. Lothers, Robert C. Magis, Robert W. Nicholson, Ned M. Seidler. CartographicArtists:Victor J. Kelley, Snejinka Stefanoff. Research:Walter Q. Crowe (Supervisor), Virginia L. Baza, George W. Beatty, John D. Garst, Jean B. McConville, Dorothy A. Nicholson, Isaac Ortiz (Production) Research: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Wendt (Associate Chief); Newton V. Blakeslee (Assistant Chief for Geographic Information), Carolyn H. Anderson, Alice M. Bowsher, Bette Joan Goss, Jan Holderness, Lesley B. Lane, Levenia Loder, Frances H. Parker. Correspondence: Carolyn F. Clewell, Clifford R. DuBois Library: Virginia Carter Hills (Librarian); Patricia Murphy Smith (Assistant Librarian), Melba Barnes, Louise A. Robinson, Esther Ann Manion (Librarian Emeritus) Editorial Administration: Joyce W. McKean, Assistant to the Editor; Marie L. Barnes, Virginia H. Finnegan, Winifred M. Myers, Shirley Neff, M. Jean Vile, Inez D. Wilkinson (Editorial Assistants); Dorothy M. Corson (Indexes); Lorine Wendling (Files); Evelyn Fox, Dolores Kennedy (Transportation); Jeanne S. Duiker (Archives) ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF:Illustrations Editor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Associate Illustrations Editor: Thomas R. Smith. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl. Assistant IllustrationsEditors:David L. Arnold, O. Louis Mazzatenta, Char lene Murphy, Robert S. Patton, Elie S. Rogers, W. Allan Royce, Jon Schnee berger, Mary Griswold Smith. Layout and Production: H. Edward Kim (Chief). Picture Editor: Bruce A. McElfresh. Research: Paula C. Simmons. Barbara A. Shattuck (Asst.) . Librarian:L. Fern Dame Engraving and Printing:Dee J. Andella (Chief); John R. Metcalfe, William W. Smith, James R. Whitney PHOTOGRAPHIC STAFF:Director of Photography: Robert E. Gilka. Assistant Directors: Dean Conger, Joseph J. Scherschel. Photographers:James L. Amos, James P. Blair, Bruce Dale, Dick Durrance II, Gordon W. Gahan, Otis Imboden, Emory Kristof, Bates Littlehales, George F. Mobley, Robert S. Oakes, Winfield Parks, Robert F. Sisson (Natural Science), James L. Stanfield. Lilian Davidson (Administration). Film Review: Guy W. Starling (Chief). PhotographicEquipment:John E. Fletcher (Chief), Donald McBain. PictorialResearch: Walter Meayers Edwards (Chief). Photographic Labora tories and Phototypography: Carl M. Shrader (Chief); Milton A. Ford (Associ ate Chief); Herbert Altemus, Jr., David H. Chisman, Lawrence F. Ludwig (Assistant Chief, Phototypography), Claude E. Petrone, J. Frank Pyles, Jr., Donald E. Stemper, George V. White RELATED EDUCATIONAL SERVICES OF THE SOCIETY Cartography: William T. Peele (Chief); David W. Cook (Assistant Chief). CartographicStaff. Margery K. Barkdull, Charles F. Case, Ted Dachtera, Richard J. Darley, John F. Dorr, Russel G. Fritz, Richard R. Furno, Charles W. Gotthardt, Jr., Catherine M. Hart, Donald A. Jaeger, Harry D. Kauhane, James W. Killion, Manuela G. Kogutowicz, Charles L. Miller, David L. Moore, Robert W. Northrop, Richard K. Rogers, John F. Shupe, Charles L. Stern, Douglas A. Strobel, George E. Stuart (Archeology), Tibor G. Toth, Thomas A. Wall, Thomas A. Walsh Books: Merle Severy (Chief); Seymour L. Fishbein (Assistant Chief), Thom as B. Allen, Ross Bennett, Charles O. Hyman, Anne Dirkes Kobor, David F. Robinson, Wilhelm R. Saake, Verla Lee Smith Special Publications and Educational Filmstrips: Robert L. Breeden (Chief); Donald J. Crump (Asst. Chief), Josephine B. Bolt, David R. Bridge, Linda Bridge, Margery G. Dunn, Johanna G. Farren, Ronald Fisher, Mary Ann Harrell, Margaret McKelway Johnson, Geraldine Linder, Robert Messer, Cynthia Ramsay, Philip B. Silcott, Joseph A. Taney Recording Division: John M. Lavery (Chief); Mary O'Connell School Service: Ralph Gray (Chief and Editor of National Geographic School Bulletin); Arthur P. Miller, Jr. (Assistant Chief and Associate Editor of School Bulletin). Joseph B. Goodwin, Ellen Joan Hurst, Charles H. Sloan, Janis Knudsen Wheat News Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief); Paul Sampson (Assistant Chief), Donald J. Frederick, William J. O'Neill, Robert C. Radcliffe; Isabel Clarke Television: Dennis B. Kane (Chief); David Cooper, Carl W. Harmon, Jr., Sidney Platt, Patricia F. Northrop (Administrative Assistant), Marjorie M. Moomey (Research) Lectures: Joanne M. Hess (Chief); Robert G. Fleegal, Mary W. McKinney, Gerald L. Wiley, Carl E. Ziebe Explorers Hall: T. Keilor Bentley (Curator-Director) EUROPEANOFFICE:W. Edward Roscher (Associate Secretary and Director), Jennifer Moseley (Assistant), 4 Curzon Place, Mayfair, London, WIY 8EN, England ADVERTISING:Director:William A. Boeger, Jr. National AdvertisingManag er: William Turgeon, 1251 Ave. of the Americas, New York, N.Y . 10020. Regional managers-Eastern:George W. Kellner, New York. Midwestern: Robert R. Henn, Chicago. Western: Thomas Martz, San Francisco. Los An geles:JackWallace. Canada:Robert W. Horan, New York. Automotive:John F. Grant, New York. Travel: Gerald A. Van Splinter, New York. Internation al Director:James L. Till, New York. European Director:Richard V. Macy, 21 rue Jean-Mermoz, Paris 8e, France. Production:E. M. Pusey, Jr. COPYRIGHT © 1973 NATIONALGEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY, 17TH AND M STS. N.W., WASHINGTON, D. C. 20036. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. REPRODUCTION OF THE WHOLE OR ANY PARTOF THECONTENTS WITHOUTWRITTEN PERMISSION IS PRO HIBITED. PRINTED IN U.S.A. SECOND-CLASS POSTAGE PAID AT WASHINGTON, D. C., A ANDADDITIONAL MAILINGOFFICES. COVER DESIGN AND TITLEPROTECT ED BY U. S. AND FOREIGN TRADEMARK REGISTRATIONS. $9 AYEAR, $1 A COPY.