National Geographic : 1974 Mar
NATIONAL -t- GEOGRAPHIC 'Y^ SOCIETY 0 WASHINGTON, D. C. Organized "for the increase and / diffusion of geographic knowledge" GILBERT HOVEY GROSVENOR O Editor, 1899-1954; President, 1920-1954 \ Chairman of the Board, 1954-1966 THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY is chartered in Washington, D. C., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. Since 1890 the Society has supported 972 explorations and research projects, adding immeasurably to man's knowledge of earth, sea, and sky. It diffuses this knowledge through its monthly journal, NA TIONAL GEOGRAPHIC; more than 30 million maps distributed each year; its books, globes, atlases, and filmstrips; 30 School Bulletins a year in color; information ser vices to press, radio, and television; technical reports; exhibits from around the world in Explorers Hall; and a nationwide series of programs on television. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. MELVIN M. PAYNE, President ROBERT E. DOYLE, Vice President and Secretary GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, Vice President THOMAS M. BEERS, Vice President and Associate Secretary HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, Treasurer OWEN R. ANDERSON, WILLIAM T. BELL, LEONARD J. GRANT, W. EDWARD ROSCHER, C. VERNON SANDERS, Associate Secretaries BOARD OF TRUSTEES MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Chairman of the Board and Editor-in-Chief THOMAS W. McKNEW, A LLOYD H. ELLIOTT, President, George Washington University CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT Director, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company GILBERT M. GROSVENOR Editor, National Geographic ARTHUR B. HANSON, General Counsel, National Geographic Society CARYL P. HASKINS, Former President, Carnegie Institution of Washington CARLISLE H. HUMELSINE President, The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation CURTIS E. LEMAY, Former Chief of Staff, U. S. Air Force H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Former Vice President, American Telephone & Telegraph Company WM. McCHESNEY MARTIN, JR. Former Chairman, Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Former Editor, Washington Star MELVIN M. PAYNE, President, National Geographic Society LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER President, Rockefeller Brothers Fund dvisory Chairman of the Board ROBERT C. SEAMANS, JR. President, National Academy of Engineering JUAN T. TRIPPE, Honorary Chairman of the Board, Pan American World Airways FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Former Editor, National Geographic JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., Former Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Science and Technology EARL WARREN, Former Chief Justice of the United States JAMES E. WEBB, Former Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration ALEXANDER WETMORE Research Associate, Smithsonian Institution LLOYD B. WILSON (Emeritus) Honorary Board Chairman, Chesapeake & Potomac Telephone Company CONRAD L. WIRTH, Former Director, National Park Service LOUIS B. WRIGHT, Former Director, Folger Shakespeare Library COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION ALEXANDER WETMORE and MELVIN M. PAYNE, Vice Chairmen EDWIN W. SNIDER, Secretary BARRY C. BISHOP, National Geographic Staff, GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, CARYL P. HASKINS, THOMAS W. McKNEW, ROBERT C. SEAMANS, JR., T. DALE STEWART, Physical Anthropologist Emeritus, Smithsonian Institution, MATTHEW W. STIRLING, Research Associate, Smithsonian Institution, JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., FRANK C. WHITMORE, JR., Research Geologist, U. S. Geological Survey, CONRAD L. WIRTH, FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, and PAUL A. ZAHL Assistant Secretaries of the Society: FRANK S. DELK, JOSEPH B. HOGAN, RAYMOND T. McELLIGOTT, JR., EDWIN W. SNIDER Assistant Treasurer: WARD S. PHELPS Leonard J. Grant, Editorial Assistant to the President; Edwin W. Snider, Richard E. Pearson, Administrative Assistants to the President; Lenore W. Kessler, Administrative Assistant to the Advisory Chairman of the Board SECRETARY'SSTAFF:Administrative: Earl Corliss, Jr., Harriet Carey, Frederick C. Gale. Accounting: Jay H. Givans, Alfred J. Hayre, William G. McGhee, Martha Allen Baggett. Membership Promotion and Statistics: Charles T. Kneeland (Chief), Thomas M. Kent. Payroll and Retirement: Howard R. Hudson (Super visor); Mary L. Whitmore, Dorothy L. Dameron (Assistants). Procurement: J. P. M . Johnston, Thomas L. Fletcher, Robert G. Corey, Sheila H. Immel. Membership Fulfillment: Geneva S. Robinson, Paul B. Tylor, Peter F. Woods. Computer Center: Lewis P. Lowe. Promotion: Robert J. Warfel, Towne Windom, F. William Rath. Printing:Joe M. Barlett, Frank S. Oliverio. ProductionControl: James P. Kelly. Personnel: James B. Mahon, Adrian L. Loftin, Jr., Glenn G. Pep perman, Nellie E. Sinclair. Medical: Thomas L. Hartman, M.D. Translation: Zbigniew Jan Lutyk COVER: Summer thaw brings new problems during a trek across Arctic America (pages 295-321). coLINIRWIN POSTMASTER: SEND CHANGE OF ADDRESS FORM 3579 AND UNDELIVERED COPIES TO NATIONALGEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE, 17TH AND M STS. N.W., WASHINGTON, D. C. 20036 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVILLEBELLGROSVENOR Editor-in-Chief and Board Chairman MELVIN M. PAYNE President of the Society GILBERT M. GROSVENOR Editor FRANC SHOR, JOHN SCOFIELD Associate Editors Senior Assistant Editors Robert L. Breeden, James Cerruti, W. E. Garrett, Kenneth MacLeish Jules B. Billard, Allan C. Fisher, Jr., Carolyn Bennett Patterson Assistant Editors: Andrew H. Brown, William Graves, Robert P. Jordan, Joseph Judge, Edward J. Linehan, Samuel W. Matthews, Bart McDowell, Howell Walker, Kenneth F. Weaver Senior Editorial Staff: Thomas Y. Canby, William S. Ellis, Rowe Findley, Bryan Hodgson, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Elizabeth A. Moize, John J. Putman, Merle E. Severy, Gordon Young; Senior Scientist: Paul A. Zahl Foreign Editorial Staff: Luis Marden (Chief); Thomas J. Abercrombie, David S. Boyer, Howard La Fay, Volkmar Wentzel, Peter T. White Editorial Staff: Harvey Arden, Kent Britt, Mike W. Edwards, Noel Grove, Alice J. Hall, Werner Janney, Jerry Kline, Michael E. Long, John L. Mcln tosh, Ethel A. Starbird Editorial Layout: Howard E. Paine (Chief); Charles C. Uhl Geographic Art: William N. Palmstrom (Chief). Artists: Lisa Biganzoli, Wil liam H. Bond, John W. Lothers, Robert C. Magis, Ned M. Seidler. Carto graphicArtists: Victor J. Kelley, Snejinka Stefanoff. Research: Walter Q. Crowe (Supervisor), Virginia L. Baza, George W. Beatty, John D. Garst, Dorothy A. Nicholson, Isaac Ortiz (Production) Research: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Wendt (Associate Chief); Newton V. Blakeslee (Assistant Chief for Geographic Information); Carolyn H. Anderson, Susan L. Anderson, Judith Brown, Bette Joan Goss, Jan Holderness, Lesley B. Lane, Levenia Loder, Jean B. McConville, Carol M. McNamara, Susan F. Moore, Frances H. Parker. Correspondence: Carolyn F. Clewell, Clifford R. DuBois Library: Virginia Carter Hills (Librarian); Patricia Murphy Smith (Assistant Librarian), Louise A. Robinson Editorial Administration: Joyce W. McKean, Assistant to the Editor; Virginia H. Finnegan, Winifred M. Myers, Shirley Neff, M. Jean Vile (Editorial Assistants); Dorothy M, Corson (Indexes); Evelyn Fox, Dolores Kennedy (Travel); Jeanne S. Duiker, Lorie Wendling, Mary Anne McMillen (Records) ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF:Illustrations Editor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Associate Illustrations Editor: Thomas R. Smith. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl. Assistant IllustrationsEditors: David L. Arnold, O. Louis Mazzatenta, Char lene Murphy, Robert S. Patton, Elie S. Rogers, W. Allan Royce, Jon Schnee berger, Mary Griswold Smith. Layout and Production: H. Edward Kim (Chief). Picture Editor: Bruce A. McElfresh. Research: Paula C. Simmons. Barbara A. Shattuck (Asst.) . Librarian: L. Fern Dame. Assistant Librarian: Carolyn J. Harrison Engraving and Printing: Dee J. Andella (Chief); John R. Metcalfe, William W. Smith, James R. Whitney PHOTOGRAPHIC STAFF:Director of Photography: Robert E. Gilka. Assistant Directors: Dean Conger, Joseph J. Scherschel. Photographers: James L. Amos, James P. Blair, Victor R. Boswell, Jr., Bruce Dale, Dick Durrance II, Gordon W. Gahan, Otis Imboden, Emory Kristof, Bates Littlehales, Robert W. Madden, George F. Mobley, Robert S. Oakes, Winfield Parks, Robert F. Sisson (Natural Science), James L. Stanfield. Lilian Davidson (Adminis tration). Film Review: Guy W. Starling (Chief). Photographic Equipment: John E. Fletcher (Chief), Donald McBain Photographic Services: Carl M. Shrader (Chief); Milton A. Ford (Associate Chief); Jon R. Adams, Herbert Altemus, Jr., David H. Chisman, Lawrence F. Ludwig (Assistant Chief, Phototypography), Claude E. Petrone, J. Frank Pyles, Jr., Donald E. Stemper; Joan S. Simms (Asst.) RELATED EDUCATIONAL SERVICES OF THE SOCIETY Cartography: William T. Peele (Chief); David W. Cook (Associate Chief). Cartographic Staff: Margery K. Barkdull, Charles F. Case, Ted Dachtera, Richard J. Darley, John F. Dorr, Russel G. Fritz, Richard R. Furno, Charles W. Gotthardt, Jr., Catherine M. Hart, Donald A. Jaeger, Harry D. Kauhane, James W. Killion, Manuela G. Kogutowicz, Charles L. Miller, David L. Moore, Robert W. Northrop, Richard K. Rogers, John F. Shupe, Charles L. Stern, Douglas A. Strobel, George E. Stuart (Archeology), Tibor G. Toth, Thomas A. Wall, Thomas A. Walsh Books: Jules B. Billard (Chief); Seymour L. Fishbein (Assistant Chief); Thomas B. Alien, Ross Bennett, Charles O. Hyman, Anne Dirkes Kobor. David F. Robinson, Wilhelm R. Saake, Verla Lee Smith Special Publications and Educational Filmstrips: Robert L. Breeden (Chief); Donald J. Crump (Assistant Chief); William L. Allen, Josephine B. Bolt, David R. Bridge, Linda Bridge, Margery G. Dunn, Ronald Fisher, William R. Gray, Mary Ann Harrell, Margaret McKelway Johnson, Geraldine Linder, Robert Messer, H. Robert Morrison, Cynthia Ramsay, Philip B. Silcott, Tee Loftin Snell, Joseph A. Taney, George V. White, Merrill Windsor Recording Division: John M. Lavery (Chief) School Service: Ralph Gray (Chief and Editor of National Geographic School Bulletin); Charles H. Sloan (Assistant Chief); Joseph B. Goodwin, Ellen Joan Hurst, Veronica Smith, Janis Knudsen Wheat News Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief); Paul Sampson (Assistant Chief); Donald J. Frederick, William J. O'Neill, Robert C. Radcliffe; Isabel Clarke Television andEducational Films: Dennis B. Kane (Chief); Sidney Platt (Super visor, Educational Projects); David Cooper, Carl W. Harmon, Jr., Arthur P. Miller, Jr., Patricia F. Northrop; Marjorie M. Moomey (Chief of Research) Lectures: Joanne M. Hess (Chief); Robert G. Fleegal, Mary W. McKinney, Gerald L. Wiley, Carl E. Ziebe Explorers Hall: T. Keilor Bentley (Curator-Director) EUROPEANOFFICE:W. Edward Roscher (Associate Secretary and Director), Jennifer Moseley (Assistant), 4 Curzon Place, Mayfair, London, W1Y 8EN ADVERTISING:Director: William A. Boeger, Jr. Assistant Director:James L. Till. National Advertising Manager: William Turgeon, 1251 Ave. of the Americas, New York, N.Y. 10020. Regional managers-Eastern:George W. Kellner, New York. Midwestern: Robert R. Henn, Chicago. Pacific: Thomas Martz, San Francisco. Los Angeles: Jack Wallace. Canada:Robert W. Horan, New York. Automotive: John F. Grant, New York. Travel: Gerald A. Van Splinter, New York. European Director: Richard V. Macy, 21 rue Jean-Mermoz, Paris 8e, France. Production:E. M. Pusey, Jr. COPYRIGHT © 1974 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY, 17TH AND M STS. N.W., WASHINGTON, D. C. 20036. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. REPRODUCTION OF THE WHOLE OR ANY PART OF THE CONTENTS WITHOUTWRITTEN PERMISSION IS PRO HIBITED. PRINTED IN U.S .A. SECOND-CLASS POSTAGE PAID AT WASHINGTON, D. C., AND ADDITIONAL MAILING OFFICES. COVER DESIGN AND TITLE PROTECT ED BY U. S . AND FOREIGN TRADEMARK REGISTRATIONS. $9 A YEAR, $1 A COPY.