National Geographic : 1974 Apr
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY WASHINGTON, D. C. Organized "for the increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge" GILBERT HOVEY GROSVENOR C Editor, 1899-1954; President, 1920-1954 ^ Chairman of the Board, 1954-1966 THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY is chartered in Washington, D. C., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. Since 1890 the Society has supported 995 explorations and research projects, adding immeasurably to man's knowledge of earth, sea, and sky. It diffuses this knowledge through its monthly journal, NA TIONAL GEOGRAPHIC; more than 30 million maps distributed each year; its books, globes, atlases, and filmstrips; 30 School Bulletins a year in color; information ser vices to press, radio, and television; technical reports; exhibits from around the world in Explorers Hall; and a nationwide series of programs on television. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. MELVIN M. PAYNE, President ROBERT E. DOYLE, Vice President and Secretary GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, Vice President THOMAS M. BEERS, Vice President and Associate Secretary HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, Treasurer OWEN R. ANDERSON, WILLIAM T. BELL, LEONARD J. GRANT, W. EDWARD ROSCHER, C. VERNON SANDERS, Associate Secretaries BOARD OF TRUSTEES MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Chairman of the Board and Editor-in-Chief THOMAS W. McKNEW, Advisory Chairman of the Board LLOYD H. ELLIOTT, President, George Washington University CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT Director, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company GILBERT M. GROSVENOR Editor, National Geographic ARTHUR B. HANSON, General Counsel, National Geographic Society CARYL P. HASKINS, Former President, Carnegie Institution of Washington CARLISLE H. HUMELSINE President, The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation MRS. LYNDON B. JOHNSON CURTIS E. LEMAY, Former Chief of Staff, U. S . Air Force H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Former Vice President, American Telephone & Telegraph Company WM. McCHESNEY MARTIN, JR. Former Chairman, Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Former Editor, Washington Star MELVIN M. PAYNE, President, National Geographic Society LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER President, Rockefeller Brothers Fund ROBERT C. SEAMANS, JR. President, National Academy of Engineering JUAN T. TRIPPE, Honorary Chairman of the Board, Pan American World Airways FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Former Editor, National Geographic JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., Former Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Science and Technology EARL WARREN, Former Chief Justice of the United States JAMES E. WEBB, Former Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration ALEXANDER WETMORE Research Associate, Smithsonian Institution LLOYD B. WILSON (Emeritus) Honorary Board Chairman, Chesapeake & Potomac Telephone Company CONRAD L. WIRTH, Former Director, National Park Service LOUIS B. WRIGHT, Former Director, Folger Shakespeare Library COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION ALEXANDER WETMORE, Acting Chairman MELVIN M. PAYNE, Vice Chairman EDWIN W. SNIDER, Secretary BARRY C. BISHOP, National Geographic Staff, GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, CARYL P. HASKINS, THOMAS W. McKNEW, ROBERT C. SEAMANS, JR., T. DALE STEWART, Physical Anthropologist Emeritus, Smithsonian Institution, MATTHEW W. STIRLING, Research Associate, Smithsonian Institution, JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., FRANK C. WHITMORE, JR., Research Geologist, U. S. Geological Survey, CONRAD L. WIRTH, FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, and PAUL A. ZAHL Assistant Secretaries of the Society: FRANK S. DELK, JOSEPH B. HOGAN, ADRIAN L. LOFTIN, JR., LEWIS P. LOWE, RAYMOND T. McELLIGOTT, JR., EDWIN W. SNIDER Assistant Treasurer: WARD S. PHELPS Leonard J. Grant, Editorial Assistant to the President; Edwin W. Snider, Richard E. 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Hartman, M.D. Translation:Zbigniew Jan Lutyk SCOVER: Wistful eyes of a young Londoner evoke the England Charles Dickens knew (page 443). ADAM WOOLFITT POSTMASTER: SEND CHANGE OF ADDRESS FORM 3579 AND UNDELIVEREDCOPIES TO NATIONAL GEOGRAPHICMAGAZINE, 17TH AND M STS. N.W ., WASHINGTON, D. C. 20036 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVILLE BELLGROSVENOR Editor-in-Chief and Board Chairman MELVIN M. PAYNE President of the Society GILBERT M. GROSVENOR Editor FRANC SHOR, JOHN SCOFIELD Associate Editors Senior Assistant Editors Robert L. Breeden, James Cerruti, W. E. Garrett, Kenneth MacLeish Jules B. Billard, Allan C. Fisher, Jr., Carolyn Bennett Patterson Assistant Editors: Andrew H. Brown, William Graves, Robert P. Jordan, Joseph Judge, Edward J. Linehan, Samuel W. Matthews, Bart McDowell, Howell Walker, Kenneth F. Weaver Senior Editorial Staff: Thomas Y. Canby, William S. Ellis, Rowe Findley, Bryan Hodgson, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Elizabeth A. Moize, John J. Putman, Merle E. 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McConville, Carol M. McNamara, Susan F. Moore, Frances H. Parker. Correspondence: Carolyn F. Clewell, Clifford R. DuBois Library: Virginia Carter Hills (Librarian); Patricia Murphy Smith (Assistant Librarian), Louise A. Robinson Editorial Administration: Joyce W. McKean, Assistant to the Editor; Virginia H. Finnegan, Winifred M. Myers, Shirley Neff, M. Jean Vile (Editorial Assistants); Dorothy M. Corson (Indexes); Evelyn Fox, Dolores Kennedy (Travel); Jeanne S. Duiker, Lorie Wendling, Mary Anne McMillen (Records) ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF:Illustrations Editor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Associate Illustrations Editor: Thomas R. Smith. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl. Assistant IllustrationsEditors: David L. Arnold, O. Louis Mazzatenta, Char lene Murphy, Robert S. Patton, Elie S. Rogers, W. Allan Royce, Jon Schnee berger, Mary Griswold Smith. Layout and Production: H. Edward Kim (Chief). Picture Editor: Bruce A. McElfresh. Research: Paula C. Simmons. Barbara A. Shattuck (Asst.) . Librarian: L. Fern Dame. Assistant Librarian: Carolyn J. Harrison Engraving and Printing: Dee J. Andella (Chief); John R. Metcalfe, William W. Smith, James R. Whitney PHOTOGRAPHICSTAFF:Director of Photography: Robert E. Gilka. Assistant Directors: Dean Conger, Joseph J. Scherschel. Photographers: James L. Amos, James P. Blair, Victor R. Boswell, Jr., Bruce Dale, Dick Durrance II, Gordon W. Gahan, Otis Imboden, Emory Kristof, Bates Littlehales, Robert W. Madden, George F. Mobley, Robert S. Oakes, Winfield Parks, Robert F. Sisson (Natural Science), James L. Stanfield. Lilian Davidson (Adminis tration). Film Review: Guy W. Starling (Chief). PhotographicEquipment: John E. Fletcher (Chief), Donald McBain Photographic Services: Carl M. Shrader (Chief); Milton A. Ford (Associate Chief); Jon R. Adams, Herbert Altemus, Jr., David H. Chisman, Lawrence F. Ludwig (Assistant Chief, Phototypography), Claude E. Petrone, J. Frank Pyles, Jr., Donald E. Stemper; Joan S. Simms (Asst.) RELATED EDUCATIONAL SERVICES OF THE SOCIETY Cartography: William T. Peele (Chief); David W. Cook (Associate Chief). CartographicStaff. Margery K. Barkdull, Charles F. Case, Ted Dachtera, Richard J. Darley, John F. Dorr, Russel G. Fritz, Richard R. Furno, Charles W. Gotthardt, Jr., Catherine M. Hart, Donald A. Jaeger, Harry D. Kauhane, Manuela G. Kogutowicz, Charles L. Miller, David L. Moore, Robert W. Northrop, Richard K. Rogers, John F. Shupe, Charles L. Stern, Douglas A. Strobel, George E. Stuart (Archeology), Tibor G. Toth, Thomas A. Wall, Thomas A. Walsh Books: Jules B. Billard (Chief); Seymour L. Fishbein (Assistant Chief); Thomas B. Allen, Ross Bennett, Charles O. Hyman, Anne Dirkes Kobor, David F. Robinson, Wilhelm R. Saake, Verla Lee Smith Special Publications and Educational Filmstrips: Robert L. Breeden (Chief); Donald J. Crump (Assistant Chief); William L. Allen, Josephine B. Bolt, David R. Bridge, Linda Bridge, Margery G. Dunn, Ronald Fisher, William R. 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