National Geographic : 1975 Jan
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY .. WASHINGTON, D. C. Organized "for the increase and diffusion of geographicknowledge" GILBERT HOVEY GROSVENOR Editor, 1899-1954; President, 1920-1954 " A: Chairman of the Board, 1954-1966 THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY is chartered in Washington, D. C., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. Since 1890 the Society has supported 1,086 explorations and research projects, adding immeasurably to man's knowledge of earth, sea, and sky. It diffuses this knowledge through its monthly journal, NA TIONAL GEOGRAPHIC; more than 50 million maps distributed each year; its books, globes, atlases, and filmstrips; 30 School Bulletins a year in color; information ser vices to press, radio, and television; technical reports; exhibits from around the world in Explorers Hall; and a nationwide series of programs on television. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. MELVIN M. PAYNE, President ROBERT E. DOYLE, Vice President and Secretary GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, Vice President THOMAS M. BEERS, Vice President and Associate Secretary HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, Treasurer OWEN R. ANDERSON, WILLIAM T. BELL, LEONARD J. GRANT, W. EDWARD ROSCHER, C. VERNON SANDERS, Associate Secretaries BOARD OF TRUSTEES MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Chairman of the Board and Editor-in-Chief THOMAS W. McKNEW, Advisory Chairman of the Board LLOYD H. ELLIOTT, President, George Washington University CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT Director, E. 1. du Pont de Nemours & Company GILBERT M. GROSVENOR Editor, National Geographic ARTHUR B. HANSON, General Counsel, National Geographic Society CARYL P. HASKINS, Former President, Carnegie Institution of Washington CARLISLE H. HUMELSINE President, The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation MRS. LYNDON B. JOHNSON CURTIS E. LEMAY, Former Chief of Staff, U. S. Air Force H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Former Vice President, American Telephone & Telegraph Company WM. McCHESNEY MARTIN, JR. Former Chairman, Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Former Editor, Washington Star MELVIN M. PAYNE, President, National Geographic Society LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER President, Rockefeller Brothers Fund ROBERT C. SEAMANS, JR. President, National Academy of Engineering JUAN T. TRIPPE, Honorary Chairman of the Board, Pan American World Airways FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Former Editor, National Geographic JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., Former Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Science and Technology JAMES E. WEBB, Former Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration ALEXANDER WETMORE Research Associate, Smithsonian Institution LLOYD B. WILSON (Emeritus) Honorary Board Chairman, Chesapeake & Potomac Telephone Company CONRAD L. WIRTH, Former Director, National Park Service LOUIS B. WRIGHT (Emeritus) Former Director, Folger Shakespeare Library COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION ALEXANDER WETMORE, Acting Chairman MELVIN M. PAYNE, Vice Chairman EDWIN W. SNIDER, Secretary BARRY C. BISHOP, National Geographic Staff, GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, CARYL P. HASKINS, STERLING B. HENDRICKS, Scientist Emeritus, U. S . Department of Agriculture, THOMAS W. McKNEW, ROBERT C. SEAMANS, JR., T. DALE STEWART, Physical Anthropologist Emeritus, Smithsonian Institution, MATTHEW W. STIRLING, Archeologist Emeritus, Smithsonian Institution, JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., FRANK C. WHITMORE, JR., Research Geologist, U. S. Geological Survey, CONRAD L. WIRTH, FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, and PAUL A. ZAHL Assistant Secretaries of the Society: FRANK S. DELK, JOSEPH B. HOGAN, ADRIAN L. LOFTIN, JR., LEWIS P. LOWE, RAYMOND T. McELLIGOTT, JR., EDWIN W. SNIDER Assistant Treasurer: WARD S. PHELPS Leonard J. Grant, Editorial Assistant to the President; Edwin W. Snider, Richard E. Pearson, Administrative Assistants to the President SECRETARY'SSTAFF:Administrative: Earl Corliss, Jr., Harriet Carey, Frederick C. Gale. Accounting: Jay H. Givans, Alfred J. Hayre, William G. McGhee, Martha Allen Baggett. Membership Promotion and Statistics: Charles T. Kneeland (Chief), Thomas M. Kent. Payroll and Retirement: Howard R. Hudson (Super visor); Mary L. Whitmore, Dorothy L. Dameron (Assistants). Procurement: J. P. M . Johnston, Thomas L. Fletcher, Robert G. Corey, Sheila H. Immel. Member Relations: Paul B. Tylor. Publications: Geneva S. Robinson. Data Assembly: Peter F. Woods. Promotion: Robert J. Warfel, Towne Windom, F. William Rath. Printing:Joe M. Barlett, Frank S. Oliverio. ProductionControl: James P. Kelly. Personnel: James B. Mahon, Glenn G. Pepperman, Nellie E. Sinclair. Medical: Thomas L. Hartman, M.D. Translation:Zbigniew Jan Lutyk COPYRIGHT© 1974 National Geographic Society, 17th and M Sts. N.W., Wash ington, D. C . 20036. All rights reserved. Reproduction of the whole or any part of the contents without written permission is prohibited. Printed in U.S.A . Second class postage paid at Washington, D. C., and additional mailing offices. Cover design and title protected by U. S. and foreign trademark registrations. $10 a year, $1.25 a copy. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVILLEBELLGROSVENOR Editor-in-Chief and Board Chairman MELVIN M. PAYNE President of the Society GILBERT M. GROSVENOR Editor JOHN SCOFIELD Associate Editor Senior Assistant Editors Robert L. Breeden, James Cerruti, W. E. Garrett, Kenneth MacLeish Jules B. Billard, Allan C. Fisher, Jr., Carolyn Bennett Patterson Assistant Editors: Andrew H. Brown, William Graves, Robert P. Jordan, Joseph Judge, Edward J. Linehan, Samuel W. Matthews, Bart McDowell, Howell Walker, Kenneth F. Weaver Senior Editorial Staff: Thomas Y. Canby, William S. Ellis, Rowe Findley, Bryan Hodgson, Elizabeth A. Moize, John J. Putman, Merle E. Severy, Gor don Young; Senior Scientist: Paul A. Zahl Foreign Editorial Staff: Luis Marden (Chief); Thomas J. Abercrombie, David S. Boyer, Howard La Fay, Volkmar Wentzel, Peter T. White Editorial Staff: Harvey Arden, Kent Britt, Mike W. Edwards, Noel Grove, Alice J. Hall, Werner Janney, Michael E. Long, John L. McIntosh, Ethel A. Starbird, George E. Stuart (Archeology) Art Director: Howard E. Paine; Charles C. Uhl (Asst.), Robert E. Pullman Research: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Wendt (Associate Chief); Newton V. Blakeslee (Assistant Chief for Geographic Information); Carolyn H. Anderson, Susan L. Anderson, Judith Brown, Marcia M. Butler, Susan Day Fuller, Bette Joan Goss, Sallie M. Greenwood, Jan Holderness, Lesley B. Lane, Levenia Loder, Jean B. McConville, Carol M. McNamara, Frances H. Parker, Frances W. Shaffer. Correspondence:Carolyn F. Clewell, Clifford R. DuBois Library: Virginia Carter Hills (Librarian); Patricia Murphy Smith (Assistant Librarian), Louise A. Robinson Editorial Administration: Joyce W. McKean, Assistant to the Editor; Virginia H. Finnegan, Winifred M. Myers, Shirley Neff, M. Jean Vile (Editorial Assistants); Jolene McCoy (Indexes); Evelyn Fox, Dolores Kennedy (Travel); Jeanne S. Duiker, Lorie Wendling, Mary Anne McMillen (Records) ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF:Illustrations Editor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Associate Illustrations Editor: Thomas R. Smith. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl. Assistant IllustrationsEditors:David L. Arnold, O. Louis Mazzatenta, Char lene Murphy, Robert S. Patton, Elie S. Rogers, W. Allan Royce,Jon Schnee berger, Mary Griswold Smith. Layout and Production: H. 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