National Geographic : 1975 Nov
NATIONAL i:s , GEOGRAPHIC . SOCIETY i WASHINGTON, D. C.i Organized "forthe increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge" GILBERT HOVEY GROSVENOR Editor, 1899-1954; President, 1920-1954 Chairman of the Board, 1954-1966 T HE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY is chartered in Washington, D. C., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. Since 1890 the Society has supported 1,188 explorations and research projects, adding immeasurably to man's knowledge of earth, sea, and sky. It diffuses this knowledge through its monthly journal, NA TIONAL GEOGRAPHIC; more than 50 million maps distributed each year; its books, globes, atlases, and filmstrips; National Geographic WORLD, a magazine for 8 through 12-year-olds; information services to press, radio, and television; techni cal reports; exhibits from around the world in Explorers Hall; and a nationwide series of programs on television. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. MELVIN M. PAYNE, President ROBERT E. DOYLE, Vice President and Secretary GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, Vice President THOMAS M. BEERS, Vice President and Associate Secretary HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, Treasurer OWEN R. ANDERSON, WILLIAM T. BELL, LEONARD J. GRANT, W. EDWARD ROSCHER, C. VERNON SANDERS, Associate Secretaries BOARD OF TRUSTEES MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Chairman of the Board and Editor-in-Chief THOMAS W. McKNEW, Advisory Chairman of the Board FRANK BORMAN MELVIN M. PAYNE, President, President, Eastern Airlines National Geographic Society WARREN EARL BURGER LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER Chief Justice of the United States President, Rockefeller Brothers Fund ROBERT E. DOYLE ROBERT C. SEAMANS, JR. Vice President and Secretary, Administrator, Energy Research National Geographic Society and Development Administration LLOYD H. ELLIOTT, President, JUAN T. TRIPPE, Honorary George Washington University Chairman of the Board, CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT Pan American World Airways Director, E. I. du Pont FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH de Nemours & Company Former Editor, National Geographic GILBERT M. GROSVENOR JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., Former Editor, National Geographic Assistant Secretary of Commerce ARTHUR B. HANSON, General for Science and Technology Counsel, National Geographic Society JAMES E. WEBB, Former CARYL P. HASKINS, Former Administrator, National Aeronautics President, Carnegie Institution and Space Administration of Washington ALEXANDER WETMORE CARLISLE H. HUMELSINE Research Associate, President, The Colonial Williamsburg Smithsonian Institution Foundation CONRAD L. WIRTH, Former MRS. LYNDON B. JOHNSON Director, National Park Service CURTIS E. LEMAY, Former Chief Trustees Emeritus of Staff, U. S. Air Force H. RANDOLPH MADDOX WM. McCHESNEY MARTIN, JR. BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Former Chairman, Board of LLOYD B. WILSON Governors, Federal Reserve System LOUIS B. WRIGHT COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION MELVIN M. PAYNE, Chairman EDWIN W. SNIDER, Secretary ALEXANDER WETMORE, Chairman Emeritus BARRY C. BISHOP, GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, CARYL P. HASKINS, STERLING B. HENDRICKS, Scientist Emeritus, U. S. Department of Agriculture, THOMAS W. McKNEW, ROBERT C. SEAMANS, JR., T. DALE STEWART, Physical Anthropologist Emeritus, Smithsonian Institution, FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., GEORGE E. WATSON, Curator of Birds, Smithsonian Insti tution, FRANK C. WHITMORE, JR., Research Geologist, U.S . Geological Survey, CONRAD L. WIRTH, LOUIS B. WRIGHT, and PAUL A. ZAHL, Former Senior Scientist, National Geographic Staff Assistant Secretaries of the Society: FRANK S. DELK, JOSEPH B. HOGAN, ADRIAN L. LOFTIN,JR., LEWIS P. LOWE, RAYMONDT. McELLIGOTT, JR.. EDWIN W. SNIDER. Assistant Treasurer: WARD S. PHELPS Leonard J. Grant, Editorial Assistant to the President; Edwin W. Snider, Richard E. Pearson, Administrative Assistants to the President Secretary's Staff: Administrative: Earl Corliss, Jr., Harriet Carey, Frederick C. Gale, Frank M. Twigger. Accounting: Jay H. Givans, Alfred J. Hayre, William G. McGhee, Martha Allen Baggett. Membership Promotion and Statistics:Charles T. Kneeland (Chief), Thomas M. Kent. EducationalServices:Jerome F. Owecke, Carl W. Harmon, Jr. Payroll and Retirement: Howard R. Hudson (Supervisor); Mary L. Whitmore, Dorothy L. Dameron (Assistants). Procurement: J. P. M. Johnston, Thomas L. Fletcher, Robert G. Corey, Sheila H. Immel. Member Rela tions: Paul B. Tylor. Publications: Geneva S. Robinson. DataAssembly: Peter F. Woods. Promotion: Robert J. Warfel, Towne Windom, F. William Rath, Peter P. Jones. Printing:Joe M. Barlett, Frank S. Oliverio. ProductionControl:James P. Kelly, James M. Swartz. Personnel:James B. Mahon, Glenn G. Pepperman, Nellie E. Sinclair. Medical: Thomas L. Hartman, M.D. Translation: Zbigniew Jan Lutyk COPYRIGHT© 1975 National Geographic Society, 17th and M Sts. N.W ., Wash ington, D. C. 20036. All rights reserved. Reproduction of the whole or any part of the contents without written permission is prohibited. Second-class postage paid at Washington, D. C., and additional mailing offices. Cover design and title pro tected by U. S . and foreign trademark registrations. $10 a year, $1.25 a copy. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVILLE BELLGROSVENOR Editor-in-Chiefand Board Chairman MELVIN M. PAYNE President of the Society GILBERT M. GROSVENOR Editor JOHN SCOFIELD Associate Editor Senior Assistant Editors Robert L. Breeden, James Cerruti, W. E. Garrett, Kenneth MacLeish Jules B. Billard, Allan C. Fisher, Jr., Carolyn Bennett Patterson Assistant Editors: Andrew H. Brown, William Graves, Robert P. Jordan, Joseph Judge, Edward J. Linehan, Samuel W. Matthews, Bart McDowell, Merle Severy, Kenneth F. Weaver Senior Editorial Staff: Thomas Y. Canby, William S. Ellis, Rowe Findley, Bryan Hodgson, Elizabeth A. Moize, John J. Putman, Gordon Young Foreign Editorial Staff: Luis Marden (Chief); Thomas J. Abercrombie, David S. Boyer, Howard La Fay, Volkmar Wentzel, Peter T. White Editorial Staff: Harvey Arden, Kent Britt, Mike W. Edwards, Noel Grove, Alice J. Hall, Werner Janney, Michael E. Long, John L. McIntosh, Ethel A. Starbird, George E. Stuart (Archeology) Art Director: Howard E. 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