National Geographic : 1977 Feb
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY WASHINGTON, D. C . Organized "forthe increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge" GILBERT HOVEY GROSVENOR Editor, 1899-1954; President,1920-1954 Chairman of the Board, 1954-1966 THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY is chartered in Washington, D. C ., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. Since 1890 the Society has supported 1,352 explorations and research projects, adding immeasurably to man's knowledge of earth, sea, and sky. It diffuses this knowledge through its monthly journal, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC; supplement maps distributed to members; its books, globes, atlases, filmstrips, and educational films; National Geographic WORLD, a magazine for children age 8 and older; information services to press, radio, and television; technical reports; exhibits from around the world in Explorers Hall; and a nationwide series of programs on television. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. ROBERT E. DOYLE, President GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, Vice President OWEN R. ANDERSON, Vice President and Secretary HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, Treasurer WILLIAM T. BELL, FRANK S. DELK, LEONARD J. GRANT, C. VERNON SANDERS Associate Secretaries BOARD OF TRUSTEES MELVIN M. PAYNE, Chairman of the Board MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, Chairman Emeritus THOMAS W. McKNEW, Advisory Chairman FRANK BORMAN, Chairman of the Board and President, Eastern Airlines J. CARTER BROWN, Director, National Gallery of Art WARREN E. BURGER Chief Justice of the United States ROBERT E. DOYLE, President, National Geographic Society LLOYD H. ELLIOTT, President, George Washington University CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT Director, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company GILBERT M. GROSVENOR Editor, National Geographic ARTHUR B. HANSON, General Counsel, National Geographic Society CARYL P. HASKINS, Former President, Carnegie Institution of Washington CARLISLE H. HUMELSINE President, The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation MRS. LYNDON B. JOHNSON CURTIS E. LEMAY, Former Chief of Staff, U. S. Air Force WM. McCHESNEY MARTIN, JR. Former Chairman, Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER President, Rockefeller Brothers Fund ROBERT C. SEAMANS, JR. Administrator, Energy Research and Development Administration FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Former Editor, National Geographic JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., Former Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Science and Technology JAMES E. WEBB, Former Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration CONRAD L. WIRTH, Former Director, National Park Service Trustees Emeritus H. RANDOLPH MADDOX JUAN T. TRIPPE ALEXANDER WETMORE LILOYD B. WILSON LOUIS B. WRIGHT COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION MELVIN M. PAYNE, Chairman EDWIN W. SNIDER, Secretary ALEXANDER WETMORE, Chairman Emeritus BARRY C. BISHOP, National Geographic Staff, ROBERT E. DOYLE, GIL BERT M. GROSVENOR, MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, CARYL P. HASKINS, STERLING B. HENDRICKS, Scientist Emeritus, U.S . Depart ment of Agriculture, THOMAS W. McKNEW, BETTY J. MEGGERS, Research Associate-Anthropology, Smithsonian Institution, ROBERT C. SEAMANS, JR., T. DALE STEWART, Physical Anthropologist Emeritus, Smithsonian Institu tion, GEORGE E. STUART, FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., GEORGE E. WATSON, Curator of Birds, Smithsonian Insti tution, FRANK C. WHITMORE, JR., Research Geologist, U. S . Geological Survey, CONRAD L. WIRTH, LOUIS B. WRIGHT, and PAUL A. ZAHL, Former Senior Scientist, National Geographic Staff Assistant Secretaries of the Society: JOSEPH B. HOGAN, ADRIAN L. LOFTIN, JR.,LEWISP.LOWE,RAYMONDT.McELLIGOTT,JR.,WARDS. PHELPS, EDWIN W. SNIDER. Assistant Treasurer: ALFRED J. HAYRE. Assistants to the President: Earl Corliss, Jr., Leonard J. Grant, Richard E. Pearson. Secretary's Staff: Accounting: Jay H. Givans, William G. McGhee, David H. Peters, Martha Allen Baggett. Administrative: Ruth E. Clark, Frederick C. Gale, Joyce S. Sanford, Frank M. Twigger. Cashier:Dorothy M. Wagner. DataAssem bly: Peter F. Woods. Employee Benefits: Howard R. Hudson, Mary L. Whitmore. Medical: Thomas L. Hartman, M.D. Member Relations: Paul B. Tylor. Member ship Promotion and Statistics: Charles T. Kneeland (Manager), Thomas M. Kent. Payroll: Dorothy L. Dameron. Personnel: James B. Mahon, Glenn G. Pepper man. Printing and Production Control: James P. Kelly (Manager), Joe M. Barlett, Frank S. Oliverio, Wilhelm R. Saake, James M. Swartz. Promotion and Educa tional Services: Cletis Pride (Director); Carl W. Harmon, Jr., Peter P. Jones, Jerome F. Owecke, F. William Rath, Robert J. Warfel, Towne Windom. Publica tions: Geneva S. Robinson. Purchasing: Robert G. Corey, Thomas L. Fletcher, Sheila H. Immel. Translation:Zbigniew Jan Lutyk COPYRIGHT© 1977 National Geographic Society, 17th and M Sts. N.W ., Wash ington, D. C . 20036. All rights reserved. Reproduction of the whole or any part of the contents without written permission is prohibited. Second-class postage paid at Washington, D. C., and additional mailing offices. Cover design and title pro tected by U. S . and foreign trademark registrations. $10 a year, $1.25 a copy. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVIN M. PAYNE Chairman of the Board ROBERT E. DOYLE President ofthe Society MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Editor-in-Chief GILBERT M. GROSVENOR Editor JOHN SCOFIELD AssociateEditor Senior AssistantEditors W. E. Garrett (Graphics), Joseph Judge (Articles) Jules B. Billard, Robert L. Breeden, James Cerruti, Allan C. Fisher, Jr., Kenneth MacLeish, Samuel W. Matthews, Carolyn Bennett Patterson Assistant Editors: Andrew H. Brown, William Graves, Robert P. Jordan, Edward J. Linehan, Bart McDowell, Merle Severy, Kenneth F. Weaver (Science) Senior Editorial Staq: Thomas Y. Canby, William S. Ellis, Rowe Findley, Bryan Hodgson, Elizabeth A. Moize, John J. Putman, Gordon Young Foreign Editorial Staf: Thomas J. Abercrombie, David S. Boyer, Howard La Fay, Volkmar Wentzel, Peter T. White Editorial Staf: Harvey Arden, Kent Britt, Mike W. Edwards, Rick Gore, Noel Grove, Alice J. Hall, WernerJanney, David Jeffery, Michael E. Long, John L. Mclntosh, Ethel A. Starbird, George E. Stuart(Archeology), Priit J. Vesilind Art Director: Howard E. 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