National Geographic : 1977 Mar
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY WASHINGTON, D. C. Organized "for the increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge" GILBERT HOVEY GROSVENOR Editor, 1899-1954; President, 1920-1954 Chairman of the Board, 1954-1966 THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY is chartered in Washington, D. C ., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. Since 1890 the Society has supported 1,362 explorations and research projects, adding immeasurably to man's knowledge of earth, sea, and sky. It diffuses this knowledge through its monthly journal, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC; supplement maps distributed to members; its books, globes, atlases, filmstrips, and educational films; National Geographic WORLD, a magazine for children age 8 and older; information services to press, radio, and television; technical reports; exhibits from around the world in Explorers Hall; and a nationwide series of programs on television. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. ROBERT E. DOYLE, President GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, Vice President OWEN R. ANDERSON, Vice President and Secretary HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, Treasurer WILLIAM T. BELL, FRANK S. DELK, LEONARD J. GRANT, RAYMOND T. McELLIGOTT, JR., C. VERNON SANDERS, EDWIN W. SNIDER Associate Secretaries BOARD OF TRUSTEES MELVIN M. PAYNE, Chairman of the Board LLOYD H. ELLIOTT, Vice Chairman President, George Washington University MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, Chairman Emeritus THOMAS W. McKNEW, Advisory Chairman FRANK BORMAN, Chairman of the Board and President, Eastern Airlines J. CARTER BROWN, Director, National Gallery of Art WARREN E. BURGER Chief Justice of the United States ROBERT E. DOYLE, President, National Geographic Society CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT Director, E. I . du Pont de Nemours & Company GILBERT M. GROSVENOR Editor, National Geographic ARTHUR B. HANSON, General Counsel, National Geographic Society CARYL P. HASKINS, Former President, Carnegie Institution of Washington CARLISLE H. HUMELSINE President, The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation MRS. LYNDON B. JOHNSON CURTIS E. LEMAY, Former Chief of Staff, U. S . Air Force WM. McCHESNEY MARTIN, JR. Former Chairman, Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER President, Rockefeller Brothers Fund ROBERT C. SEAMANS, JR. Administrator, Energy Research and Development Administration FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Former Editor, National Geographic JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., Former Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Science and Technology JAMES E. WEBB, Former Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration CONRAD L. WIRTH, Former Director, National Park Service Trustees Emeritus H. RANDOLPH MADDOX JUAN T. TRIPPE ALEXANDER WETMORE LLOYD B. WILSON LOUIS B. WRIGHT COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION MELVIN M. PAYNE, Chairman EDWIN W. SNIDER, Secretary ALEXANDER WETMORE, Chairman Emeritus BARRY C. BISHOP, National Geographic Staff, ROBERT E. DOYLE, GIL BERT M. GROSVENOR, MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, CARYL P. HASKINS, STERLING B. HENDRICKS, Scientist Emeritus, U. S. Depart ment of Agriculture, THOMAS W. McKN EW, BETTY J. MEGGERS, Research Associate-Anthropology, Smithsonian Institution, ROBERT C. SEAMANS, JR., T. DALE STEWART, Physical Anthropologist Emeritus, Smithsonian Institu tion, GEORGE E. STUART, FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., GEORGE E. WATSON, Curator of Birds, Smithsonian Insti tution, FRANK C. WHITMORE, JR., Research Geologist, U. S. Geological Survey, CONRAD L. WIRTH, LOUIS B. WRIGHT, and PAUL A. ZAHL, Former Senior Scientist, National Geographic Staff Assistant Secretaries of the Society: JOSEPH B. HOGAN, JAMES P. KELLY, ADRIAN L. LOFTIN, JR., LEWIS P. LOWE, WARD S. PHELPS, CLETIS PRIDE. Assistant Treasurer: ALFRED J. HAYRE. Assistants to the President: Earl Corliss, Jr., Leonard J. Grant, Richard E. Pearson. Secretary's Staff: Accounting: Jay H. Givans, William G. McGhee, David H. Peters, Martha Allen Baggett. Administrative: Ruth E. Clark, Frederick C. Gale, Robert V. Koenig, Joyce S. Sanford, Frank M. Twigger. Cashier: Dorothy M. Wagner. Computer Center: James G. Schmelzer. Data Assembly: Peter F. Woods. Employee Benefits: Howard R. Hudson, Mary L. Whitmore. Explorers Hall: Peter Purpura (Curator). Medical: Thomas L. Hartman, M.D. Member Relations: Paul B. Tylor. Membership Promotion and Statistics: Charles T. Kneeland (Manager), Thomas M. Kent. Payroll: Dorothy L. Dameron. Personnel: Robert E. Howell, James B. Mahon, Glenn G. Pepperman, Shirley N. Wilson. Printing and Production Control:Joe M. Barlett, Frank S. Oliverio, Wilhelm R. Saake, James M. Swartz. Promotionand EducationalServices: Carl W. Harmon, Jr., Peter P. Jones, Jerome F. Owecke, F. William Rath, Robert J. Warfel, Towne Windom. Publications: Geneva S. Robinson. Purchasing: Robert G. Corey, Thomas L. Fletcher, Sheila H. Immel. Translation:Zbigniew Jan Lutyk COPYRIGHT© 1977 National Geographic Society, 17th and M Sts. N.W., Wash ington, D. C . 20036. All rights reserved. Reproduction of the whole or any part of the contents without written permission is prohibited. Second-class postage paid at Washington, D. C., and additional mailing offices. Cover design and title pro tected by U.S . and foreign trademark registrations $10 a year, $1.25 a copy. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVIN M. PAYNE Chairman of the Board ROBERT E. DOYLE President of the Society MELVILLE BELLGROSVENOR Editor-in-Chief GILBERT M. GROSVENOR Editor JOHN SCOFIELD Associate Editor Senior Assistant Editors W. E. Garrett (Graphics), Joseph Judge (Articles) Jules B. Billard, Robert L. Breeden, James Cerruti, Allan C. Fisher, Jr., Kenneth MacLeish, Samuel W. Matthews, Carolyn Bennett Patterson, Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Assistant Editors: Andrew H. Brown, William Graves, Robert P. Jordan, Edward J. Linehan, Bart McDowell, Merle Severy, Kenneth F. Weaver (Science) Senior Editorial Staff: Thomas Y. Canby, William S. Ellis, Rowe Findley, Bryan Hodgson, Elizabeth A. Moize, John J. Putman, Gordon Young Foreign Editorial Staff Thomas J. Abercrombie, David S. Boyer, Howard La Fay, Volkmar Wentzel, Peter T. White EditorialSta: Harvey Arden, Kent Britt, Mike W. Edwards, Rick Gore, Noel Grove, Alice J. Hall, WernerJanney, David Jeffery, Michael E. Long, John L. Mclntosh, Ethel A. Starbird, George E. Stuart (Archeology), Priit J. Vesilind Art Director: Howard E. Paine; Charles C. Uhl (Asst.), Robert E. Pullman Research: Ann K. Wendt (Chief); Frances H. Parker (Associate Chief); Carolyn H. Anderson, Susan L. Anderson, Judith Brown, Marcia M. Butler, Susan P. Byrnes, Susan Day Fuller, Ann B. Henry, Jan Holderness, Levenia Loder, Jean B. McConville, Carol M. McNamara, Lesley B. Rogers, Frances W. Shaffer, Michaeline A. Sweeney. Correspondence: Carolyn F. Clewell, Clifford R. DuBois. GeographicInformation: Bette Joan Goss Library: Virginia Carter Hills (Librarian); Patricia Murphy Smith (Assistant Librarian), Carolyn Locke, Louise A. Robinson, Marta Strada Editorial Administration: Joyce W. McKean, Assistant to the Editor; Virginia H. Finnegan, Lucille L. Mclnerney, Winifred M. Myers, Shirley Neff, M. Jean Vile (Assistants); Jolene M. Blozis (Indexes); Evelyn Fox, Dolores Kennedy (Travel); Lorie Northrop, Mary Anne McMillen (Records) ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF:Illustrations Editor: Thomas R. Smith. Art Editor: An drew Poggenpohl. Assistant Illustrations Editors: David L. Arnold, O. Louis Mazzatenta, Charlene Murphy, Robert S. Patton, Elie S. Rogers, W. Allan Royce, Jon Schneeberger, Mary Griswold Smith. Layout and Production: H. Edward Kim. Picture Editors: Bruce A. McElfresh, Paula C. Simmons. Bar bara A. Shattuck (Assistant). Librarian:L. Fern Dame. Assistant Librarian: Carolyn J. Harrison Geographic Art: William N. Palmstrom (Chief); Walter Q. Crowe, John D. Garst, Jr. (Assistant Chiefs). Artists: Lisa Biganzoli, William H. Bond, John W. Lothers, Robert C. Magis, Ned M. Seidler, Lloyd K. Townsend. Cartographic Artist: Snejinka Stefanoff. Map Editor:John T. Blozis. Research:Virginia L. Baza, Dorothy A. Nicholson, Ann Ruhnka. Production:Isaac Ortiz (Super visor); Iskandar Baday, Elie Sabban, Leo B. Zebarth Engraving and Printing: Dee J. Andella (Chief); William W. Smith (Assistant Chief); John T. Dunn, John R. Metcalfe, James R. Whitney PHOTOGRAPHIC STAFF:Director of Photography: Robert E. Gilka. Assistant Directors: Dean Conger, Joseph J. Scherschel. Photographers: James L. Amos, James P. Blair, Victor R. Boswell, Jr., Bruce Dale, Gordon W. Gahan, Otis Imboden, Emory Kristof, Bianca Lavies, Bates Littlehales, Robert W. Madden, George F. Mobley, Robert S. Oakes, Winfield Parks, Steve Raymer, Robert F. Sisson (Natural Science), James L. Stanfield. Lilian Davidson (Ad ministration). Film Review: Guy W. Starling (Chief). Photographic Equip ment: John E. Fletcher (Chief) Photographic Services: Carl M. Shrader (Chief); Milton A. Ford (Associate Chief); Lawrence F. Ludwig (Assistant Chief); Herbert Altemus, Jr., David H. Chisman, Ellwood M. Kohler, Jr., Geoffrey T. McConnell, William S. Petrini, Claude E. Petrone, Joan S. Simms (Assistant) RELATED EDUCATIONAL SERVICES OF THE SOCIETY Cartography: William T. Peele (Chief); David W. Cook (Associate Chief). CartographicStaff. Margery K. Barkdull, Charles F. Case, Ted Dachtera, Richard J. Darley, John F. Dorr, Russel G. Fritz, Richard R. Furno, Charles W. Gotthardt, Jr., Thomas L. Gray, Catherine M. Hart, Donald A. Jaeger, Harry D. Kauhane, Manuela G. Kogutowicz, Mary Anne McAleer, Charles L. Miller, Robert W. Northrop, Richard K. Rogers, John F. Shupe, Charles L. Stern, Douglas A. Strobel, Tibor G. Toth, Thomas A. Wall, Thomas A. Walsh, Charles M. Wilson III Books: Jules B. Billard (Chief); Thomas B. Allen, Seymour L. Fishbein (As sociate Chiefs); Ross Bennett, Charles O. Hyman, Anne Dirkes Kobor, David F. Robinson, Verla Lee Smith Special Publications and School Services: Robert L. Breeden (Chief); Donald J. Crump (Associate Chief); Philip B. Silcott (Assistant Chief); William L. Allen, Josephine B. Bolt, David R. Bridge, Linda Bridge, Ronald Fisher, Wil liam R. Gray, Sallie M. Greenwood, Mary Ann Harrell, Suzanne J. Jacobson, Margaret McKelway Johnson, Geraldine Linder, Tee Loftin, Louisa V. Magzanian, Robert Messer, Jennifer C. Urquhart, Ursula Perrin Vosseler, George V. White, Merrill Windsor. National Geographic WORLD: Ralph Gray (Editor); Charles H. Sloan (Associate Editor); Ellen Joan Hurst, Anne H. Oman, Patricia F. Robbins, Veronica Smith. Books for Young Explorers: Cynthia Ramsay. Filmstrips:Jimmie Abercrombie,James B. Caffrey, Margery G. Dunn, Jacqueline Geschickter, Jane R. McCauley, H. Robert Morrison, George Peterson, Judith E. Rinard News Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief); Paul Sampson (Assistant Chief); Donald J. Frederick, William J. O'Neill, Robert C. Radcliffe Television and Educational Films: Dennis B. Kane (Chief); Sidney Platt (Edu cational Projects); Patricia F. Northrop (Promotion); Carl E. Ziebe, Yeorgos N. Lampathakis, Marjorie M. Moomey (Research). Lectures: Joanne M. Hess (Chief); Robert G. Fleegal, Mary W. McKinney, Gerald L. Wiley. Records: John M. Lavery (Chief). ADVERTISING:Director: James L. Till, 1251 Avenue of the Americas, New York 10020. Regional managers-Eastern: George W. Kellner, New York. Midwestern: Robert R. Henn, Chicago. San Francisco:Cecil H. London. Los Angeles: Richard H. Lehman. Detroit: George E. Moffat. Canada: Robert W. Horan, New York. International:John F. Grant, New York. Travel: Gerald A. Van Splinter, New York. EuropeanDirector: Michel A. Boutin, 90 Ave. des Champs-Elysees 75008, Paris. Business Manager: Peter W. Michaels. POSTMASTER:Send change of address form 3579 to National Geographic, 17th and M Sts. N.W ., Washington, D. C. 20036.