National Geographic : 1977 May
NATIONAL o GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY -' /" ' WASHINGTON, D. C. Organized "forthe increase and diffusion of geographicknowledge" :' GILBERT HOVEY GROSVENOR Editor, 1899-1954; President,1920-1954 Chairman of the Board, 1954-1966 THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY is chartered in Washington, D. C., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge and promoting research and exploration. Since 1890 the Society has supported 1,383 explorations and research projects, adding immeasurably to man's knowledge of earth, sea, and sky. It diffuses this knowledge through its monthly journal, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC; supplement maps distributed to members; its books, globes, atlases, filmstrips, and educational films; National Geographic WORLD, a magazine for children age 8 and older; information services to press, radio, and television; technical reports; exhibits from around the world in Explorers Hall; and a nationwide series of programs on television. Articles and photographs of travel, natural history, and expeditions to far places are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. ROBERT E. DOYLE, President GILBERT M. GROSVENOR, Vice President OWEN R. ANDERSON, Vice President and Secretary HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, Treasurer WILLIAM T. BELL, FRANK S. DELK, LEONARD J. GRANT, RAYMOND T. McELLIGOTT, JR., C. VERNON SANDERS, EDWIN W. SNIDER Associate Secretaries BOARD OF TRUSTEES MELVIN M. PAYNE, Chairman of the Board LLOYD H. ELLIOTT, Vice Chairman President, George Washington University MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, Chairman Emeritus THOMAS W. McKNEW, Advisory Chairman FRANK BORMAN, Chairman of the Board and President, Eastern Airlines J. CARTER BROWN, Director, National Gallery of Art WARREN E. BURGER Chief Justice of the United States ROBERT E. DOYLE, President, National Geographic Society CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT Director, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company GILBERT M. GROSVENOR Editor, National Geographic ARTHUR B. HANSON, General Counsel, National Geographic Society CARYL P. HASKINS, Former President, Carnegie Institution of Washington CARLISLE H. HUMELSINE President, The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation MRS. LYNDON B. JOHNSON CURTIS E. LEMAY, Former Chief of Staff, U. S. Air Force WM. McCHESNEY MARTIN, JR. Former Chairman, Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER President, Rockefeller Brothers Fund ROBERT C. SEAMANS, JR. Former Administrator, Energy Research and Development Administration FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH Former Editor, National Geographic JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., Former Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Science and Technology JAMES E. WEBB, Former Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration CONRAD L. WIRTH, Former Director, National Park Service Trustees Emeritus H. RANDOLPH MADDOX JUAN T. TRIPPE ALEXANDER WETMORE LLOYD B. WILSON LOUIS B. WRIGHT COMMITTEE FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION MELVIN M. PAYNE, Chairman EDWIN W. SNIDER, Secretary ALEXANDER WETMORE, Chairman Emeritus BARRY C. BISHOP, National Geographic Staff, ROBERT E. DOYLE, GIL BERT M. GROSVENOR, MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, CARYL P. HASKINS, STERLING B. HENDRICKS, Scientist Emeritus, U. S. Depart ment of Agriculture, THOMAS W. McKN EW, BETTY J. MEGGERS, Research Associate-Anthropology, Smithsonian Institution, ROBERT C. SEAMANS, JR., T. DALE STEWART, Physical Anthropologist Emeritus, Smithsonian Institu tion, GEORGE E. STUART, FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, JAMES H. WAKELIN, JR., GEORGE E. WATSON, Curator of Birds, Smithsonian Insti tution, FRANK C. WHITMORE, JR., Research Geologist, U.S . Geological Survey, CONRAD L. WIRTH, LOUIS B. WRIGHT, and PAUL A. ZAHL, Former Senior Scientist, National Geographic Staff Assistant Secretaries of the Society: JOSEPH B. HOGAN, JAMES P. KELLY, ADRIAN L. LOFTIN, JR., LEWIS P. LOWE, WARD S. PHELPS, CLETIS PRIDE. Assistant Treasurer: ALFRED J. HAYRE. Assistants to the President: Earl Corliss, Jr., Leonard J. Grant, Richard E. Pearson Secretary's Staff. Accounting: Jay H. Givans, William G. McGhee, David H. Peters, Martha Allen Baggett. Administrative: Ruth E. Clark, Frederick C. Gale, Robert V. Koenig, Joyce S. Sanford, Frank M. Twigger. Cashier: Dorothy M. Wagner. Computer Center: James G. Schmelzer. Data Assembly: Peter F. Woods. Employee Benefits: Howard R. Hudson, Mary L. Whitmore. Explorers Hall: Peter Purpura (Curator). Medical: Thomas L. Hartman, M.D. Member Relations: Paul B. Tylor. Membership Promotion and Statistics: Charles T. Kneeland (Manager), Thomas M. Kent. Payroll: Dorothy L. Dameron. Personnel: Robert E. Howell, James B. Mahon, Glenn G. Pepperman, Shirley N. Wilson. Printing and Production Control:Joe M. Barlett, Frank S. Oliverio, Wilhelm R. Saake, James M. Swartz. Promotionand EducationalServices: Carl W. Harmon, Jr., Peter P. Jones, Jerome F. Owecke, F. William Rath, Robert J. Warfel, Towne Windom. Publications: Geneva S. Robinson. Purchasing: Robert G. Corey, Thomas L. Fletcher, Sheila H. Immel. Translation:Zbigniew Jan Lutyk COPYRIGHT© 1977 National Geographic Society, 17th and M Sts. N.W., Wash ington, D. C . 20036. All rights reserved. Reproduction of the whole or any part of the contents without written permission is prohibited. Second-class postage paid at Washington, D. C., and additional mailing offices. Cover design and title pro tected by U.S . and foreign trademark registrations. $10 a year, $1.25 a copy. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MELVIN M. PAYNE Chairman of the Board ROBERT E. DOYLE President of the Society MELVILLE BELLGROSVENOR Editor Emeritus GILBERT M. GROSVENOR Editor JOHN SCOFIELD Associate Editor Senior Assistant Editors W. E. Garrett (Graphics), Joseph Judge (Articles) Jules B. Billard, Robert L. Breeden, James Cerruti, Allan C. Fisher, Jr., Kenneth MacLeish, Samuel W. Matthews, Carolyn Bennett Patterson, Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Assistant Editors: Andrew H. Brown, William Graves, Robert P. Jordan, Edward J. Linehan, Bart McDowell, Merle Severy, Kenneth F. Weaver (Science) Senior Editorial Staff Thomas Y. Canby, William S. Ellis, Rowe Findley, Bryan Hodgson, Elizabeth A. Moize, John J. Putman, Gordon Young Foreign Editorial Staff: Thomas J. Abercrombie, David S. Boyer, Howard La Fay, Volkmar Wentzel, Peter T. White EditorialStaff Harvey Arden, Kent Britt, Mike W. 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