National Geographic : 1978 Oct
Colonization of the Horn, 1897 European colonization was spurred by the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. Ethiopia repelled Italian invaders in 1896 and consolidated its territory. Italian expansion, 1940 Fascist Italy attacked Ethiopia in 1935 and by late 1940 occupied all the Horn except for the French enclave. Britain defeated the Italians in 1941. United Nations negotiations, 1952 Ethiopia was federated with Eritrea and had regained the Ogaden by 1952. In 1955 it assumed complete control of the disputed Haud grasslands. The former British and Italian colonies became the Somali Republic in 1960.