National Geographic : 1990 Apr
APRIL 1990 GRAPHICA Granny Is Reburied, This Time With Dignity After 368 years Granny has been given a decent and proper burial. Granny is the name archaeolo gists gave to a woman whose skeleton they found in a rubbish pit while exca vating the remains of Wolstenholme Towne (NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC, Janu ary 1982). This site on Virginia's James River is the oldest British-American town plan yet found. Granny-so named because she had lost all her low er molars, though she was only about 40 years old-was one of some 60 English settlers killed there on March 22, 1622, during a colony-wide Indian attack by the Powhatan Confederacy. When a Colonial Williamsburg team removed Granny's skeleton for study, a court order required them to return it eventually to the site where it was found. "We couldn't put her back in the trash pit where we found her," says Ivor Noel Hume, retired Colonial Wil liamsburg archaeologist (above right). "So we decided to put her back in a proper grave." Services were held, and Granny was reburied in a gabled colonial-style coffin. A sealed tube containing a copy of the January 1982 GEOGRAPHIC was buried with her. In the meantime, researchers have changed their original idea of who Granny was. They now think she was a maid, not the wife of a prominent set tler. That might explain why survivors of the Indian attack did not rebury her body. In any event, says Noel Hume, she remains the earliest female Virgin ia colonist found so far. RAYMONDGEHMAN How War Stimulated Geographic Knowledge W hen the U. S. Civil War broke out in 1861, few field maps were available to either the Union or the Confederate Army. By the end of the war four years later, each had mobilized an array of skilled mapmakers to guide its forces. At the same time, commercial map makers seized upon cartographic tech niques, such as panoramic "bird's-eye views," to explain the course of the war to an avid public. And newspa pers started to publish battle maps routinely. The result was an explosion of inter est and geographic knowledge among PANORAMICVIEWOFFORTRESSMONROE,VIRGINIA, PHOTOGRAPHED BY VICTORR. BOSWELL,JR., NGS Americans, both North and South. Richard W. Stephenson, a historian of cartography at the Library of Congress, tells of this explosion in his introduction to a newly published, annotated compilation of more than 2,300 Civil War maps, charts, and at lases in the library's collections. "A wide interest in maps was begin ning to develop just before the war," Stephenson says. "But the war itself added to the growth of the map indus try. Maps became essential because so many people were fighting in areas they had never heard of. It wasn't just military maps; maps were being pro duced for the general public too." Three-quarters of the maps con tained in the book were produced dur ing the war. But there are also many produced later, including several cre ated in the 1960s to illustrate GEO GRAPHIC articles for the Civil War centennial period. Across Bering Strait, an International Park W ags are calling it "Glasnost and Glaciers" park. It's a plan to link parts of Sibe ria's Chukotskiy Peninsula and Alas ka's Seward Peninsula, which face each other across the Bering Strait, as an international park. Such a park has been proposed since the 1960s, but it has gained impetus with the loosening of the U.S.- U .S .S.R . border that brought such results as the Friendship Flight (GEOGRAPHIC, October 1988).