National Geographic : 1980 Jul
INCLUDED with this issue is a wall map that has been 35 years in coming. We have waited that long to be able to pro duce a new map of China with Chinese co operation and help. Our last supplement map of China-all of it-appeared in June 1945, between the surrenders of Germany and of Japan. Our first was in 1912. The 1980 map is of a nation transformed. In 1912 we noted treaty ports for foreign commerce wrung from an enfeebled Man chu empire. In 1945 there were vast areas still occupied by the Japanese, and China was soon to be a battlefield in an enormous civil war. Now life there is reordered, and the countryside is divided into communes. Americans harbored for many years the illusion of an immutable peasantry plodding through an ancient way of life, somehow immune to the storms of political change. Because China was so long closed to us, we saw only darkly, through the eyes of "China watchers" peering from posts like Hong Kong. Only recently have we realized the full extent of the national trauma caused by the Great Leap Forward, and especially by the later Cultural Revolution that caused such losses in the economic and intellectual life of the People's Republic of China. China's scholars and scientists are now trying to make up for much lost ground. During preparation of the map, Geographic cartographer Ted Dachtera traveled to Chi na as guest of the Cartographic Publishing House. Working with that institution and the Central Academy for National Minor ities, we have been able to produce a rare and, I think, splendid ethnic map of China's many peoples and languages. Without ques tion, this is the most accurate, up-to-date map of its kind ever published, a genuine cartographic contribution. Those who have been accustomed to older Chinese place-names will find many sur prises: Beijing for Peking or Peiping, Tian jin for Tientsin, Guangzhou for Canton. The map's nomenclature follows the Pinyin system, a way of representing the sounds of Chinese characters in romanized spellings. The new system should aid understanding and communication, which can only be helpful in future relations between two large and powerful societies. ^^^^/€^^<^^ ATIrIOAL THE NATIONALGEOGRAPHICMAGAZINEVOL. 158, NO. 1 COPYRIGHT© 1980 BY NATIONALGEOGRAPHICSOCIETY WASHINGTON,D. C. INTERNATIONALCOPYRIGHTSECURED July 1980 Shanghai Portfolio 2 GEOGRAPHIC photographerBruce Dale captures the "muscle and smoke, commerce and crowds" of today's Chinesemetropolis of 11 million. China's Born-again Giant 15 Mike Edwardsfinds signs of stabilizationin Shanghai,acity that has known both the "heights ofprogressand the depths of chaos." With photographsby Bruce Dale,plus a double supplementmap ofChinaand its peoples. The Pony Express: Grit and Glory 45 Indiansand the elements warred againstthose young couriers of 1860-61 who galloped into legend. Rowe Findley andphotographerCraig Aurness retracethe historic route. Return to Uganda 73 With herCanadianhusband,a Ugandanwoman goes home after seven years,to find that hernation'ssorrows didnot end with thefall ofIdi Amin. By JerryandSarahKambites, with photographsby SarahLeen. The Bulgarians: People to Match a Rugged Land 91 Boyd Gibbonsframes a portraitof spirit,industry, anda will to make do in a socialistsystem thatoffers few luxuries and squelches criticism. Photographsby James L. Stanfield. Bulgaria's Ancient Treasures 12 A trove of copperand gold artifactssupports author ColinRenfrew's theory that metallurgy evolved in EuropeindependentofNearEast influences. Photographsby James L. Stanfield; paintingsbyJean-LeonHuens. Giant Otters, a Vanishing Breed 130 In the jungles ofSuriname,Nicole Duplaix studies South America's endangered "big water dogs." Photographsby Bates Littlehales. COVER: An 8-inch-high horse of silver and gold attests the wealth of the Thraciansof ancient Bulgaria.PhotographbyJames L. Stanfield.