National Geographic : 1982 Jan
HISTORY MAKES BORDERS, and borders often make history. From the time the barbarians swept down on the earliest civilized communities of the Tigris and Euphrates until today, a central political question of mankind has been who owns what, and by what right? The United States, bounded by two oceans and normally friendly borders, has not felt the full weight of the problem. But in a continent like Africa, where today's bor ders were drawn by yesterday's powers without regard to tribal and ethnic lines, the results are often nonsensical. Yet to change such borders would cause a new set of prob lems and troubles. Thus, different peoples who find themselves inside such an artificial border have little recourse but to seek a kind of nationhood, and that is the path most have followed. The question of borders pervades this is sue of the GEOGRAPHIC-between East and West in Berlin, between mainland China and the island of Taiwan, and on a border around Jamestown, Virginia, between white settlers and Indians. This last expand ed continually westward for 250 years and was a frontier of friction and combat throughout. Land granted by a distant king was thought to be held by right of conquest. But the Indian was there, on what he thought was his own land. Between the severed parts of the Third Reich there is not only a border but a barrier. Europe has lived with the Wall because there has seemed no peaceable alternative. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC often tries to show both sides of a critical border, and sometimes we feel the effects of one. There are 60,000 Society members in West Ger many, but only 39 in all East Germany. Some years ago I visited Quemoy and Matsu, those fortified islands off the China coast, at a time when combat was in the air. That dangerous moment passed, and it ap pears now that this border may slowly yield to a noncombative solution. Borders need not make wars. They can be means for cooperation and peaceful com promise. They can be made to work as parts of a grand scheme, as in the Sinai-to be the subject of an article in a forthcoming issue. The only certainty is that they will always be there. EDITOR NAT ©OAL THE NATIONALGEOGRAPHICMAGAZINEVOL. 161, NO. I COPYRIGHT© 1981 BY NATIONALGEOGRAPHICSOCIETY WASHINGTON,D. C. INTERNATIONALCOPYRIGHTSECURED January 1982 Two Berlins A Generation Apart 2 Thirty-six years afterpartition,historicBerlin seems permanently severed, with separate cities presenting-acrossthe Wall-sharp contrastsin wealth, license, and ambition. PriitJ.Vesilind andphotographerCotton Coulson visit both. New Clues to an Old Mystery 53 Global detective work, aided by NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC readers, helps archaeologist Ivor Noel Hume reconstruct the history of colonial Virginia'sWolstenholme Towne. Photographs by Ira Block and paintings by Richard Schlecht. The Amazing Frog-Eating Bat 78 Armed with tape recordersand cameras, zoologist Merlin D. Tuttle discovers that afrog's love song can sound like a dinner bell to hungry bats on Barro ColoradoIsland in Panama. Taiwan Confronts a New Era 92 Resilient, dynamic, and authoritarian,Taiwan home of the "derecognized"Republic of China continues its economic success story as it tests the shiftingpoliticalwinds. By Noel Grove, with photographsby John Chao. The Threatened Ways of Kenya's Pokot People 120 AnthropologistElizabethL. Meyerhoff lived for six years among Pokot farmers and herders of western Kenya. She and photographer Murray Roberts record their vanishing costumes and traditionalrituals. COVER: Touring U. S. soldiers witness the changingof the guardat a war memorial in East Berlin. Photographby Cotton Coulson.