National Geographic : 1986 Jul
IN CLASSICAL LITERATURE the best known statue is the Trojan Horse. For modern times it has to be the Statue of Liberty. The first will always stand as a symbol for treachery, the other-designed as a gesture of friendship between France and the United States-soon came to sym bolize hope, opportunity, and freedom. One hundred years ago it became a welcoming hostess to a land of liberty. The nation that celebrates the relighting of the torch this July is an ethnic, racial, and religious mix that stands witness to the pre mise and the promise the statue represents. Not all of us came by choice. Some were brought as indentured servants, others as slaves. Many have come fleeing for their lives. Most eventually have found opportu nity, and few have chosen to leave. Today there are more blacks in the United States than in any country except Nigeria or Zaire. More Poles live in Greater Chicago than in any city except Warsaw. Miami is the second largest Cuban city; New York City has the largest Jewish population. More Americans claim English origins than England's total population. Those claiming Irish blood outnumber the Irish in Ireland 11 to 1. Not even the Census Bureau can be sure, but Hispanics must now exceed 7 per cent of our nearly 240 million people. One thing this nation is not and never will be, however, is a melting pot. People can't be melted down and poured into cultural molds like chocolate soldiers. If a metaphor is needed, we might be called a stew or bouil labaisse, where each ingredient remains unique but adds flavor to the whole. Even various American Indian groups, whose ancestors first came here 12,000 years ago or more, still maintain their unique trib al, linguistic, and cultural differences. The ceremonies this July 3 to 6 will right fully be nostalgic and look back for inspira tion. But tomorrow waits with its threat of a Third World population explosion. The need to deal with immigration is obvious. But will we become like the selfish person who hopes the elevator door will close as soon as he or she is aboard? For now, by relighting the torch, we are saying the wel come mat is still out. Who knows what criti cal talents the next wave of needy may bring to this still young nation? EDITOR NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC July 1986 Liberty Lifts Her Lamp Once More 2 The great lady who welcomed millions of im migrantsto America celebrates herfirst hun dredyears. Her biography-from conception to restoration-isrecounted by Alice J. Hall. New York Harbor the Golden Door 21 Beneath Liberty's gaze, America's historic portalstill serves the world. By Erla Zwingle and photographerBruce Davidson. The Untamed Fraser, British Columbia Lifeline 44 Rival demands roil the future of this free runningriver. David S. Boyer and photogra pher ChrisJohns tell the story. The Philippines: A Time of Hope and Danger 76 As the 20-year rule of Ferdinand Marcos ends, the nation faces many challenges-a troubled economy, Communist insurgents, Muslim-Christianconflict. Arthur Zich and photographerSteve McCurry report. Corregidor Revisited 118 Forty-three years after the World War II siege, William Graves returns to the Philip pine fortress that he escaped by submarine. With photographsby Steve McCurry. Philippines Map A double supplement traces the 7,100-island group from geologic origin to today's unrest. Model Airplanes: And Then to Fly 132 Creations as delicate as a feather, as fear some as a flying dinosaur, take wing when hobbyists practicetheir craft. By Michael E. Long and photographerPeterEssick. COVER: Refurbished, the Statue of Liberty presides over New York Harbor.Photograph by Robert Sacha.