National Geographic : 1988 Jul
Spanish Caliphate from 929 to 1031, fell to the Christians, followed in 1248 by Seville, present-day capital of Andalu sia. Two powerful kingdoms were united when Ferdinand of Aragon wed Isabella of Cas tile; Granada was crushed by their combined might in 1492. CALENDAR OF EVENTS 711 Tariq ibn Ziyad leads Arab-Berber invasion of Spain; southern Spain rapidly overrun. 732 Arabs defeated near Poitiers, France, by Charles Martel, stemming Arab advance into Europe. 778 Charlemagne tries unsuccessfully to invade Spain. 800 Charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III in an attempt to unite Christian Europe. 822 Al-Hakam I dies after ruling Spain for 26 years. His reign put down rebellious Arab factions in Toledo and C6rdoba. 900 Height of Moors in Spain; Christians continue the Recon quest. C6rdoba becomes seat of Arab learning. 929 Abd-al-Rahman III the first to take title of caliph in Spain. 1066 Norman conquest of England complete with Battle of Has tings, and William the Conqueror becomes king. 1094 El Cid takes Valencia. Moors recapture it eight years later. 1095 Start of the First Crusade. 1118 Muslim city of Zaragoza taken by Alfonso I of Aragon. 1147 Almohad faction of Berbers captures Seville from the Almoravids. 1170 Thomas a Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury, is murdered in Canterbury Cathedral during reign of Henry II. 1172 Almohads capture Murcia and unite Moorish Spain and Morocco, with capitals at Seville and Marrakech. 1215 King John signs Magna Carta at Runnymede. 1236 C6rdoba taken by Christians. 1248 Seville taken by Christians as Moors are pushed farther and farther south. Work on Alhambra begins in Granada. 1275 The Marinids, Berbers from Fez, invade Spain and defeat Christian Castile. 1321 Dante completes his Divine Comedy. 1340 Christians defeat the Marinids in Spain at Salado, and the long history of Moroccan invasions of the peninsula comes to an end. 1347- Black Death devastates Europe killing approximately 1352 25 million people. 1415 Prince Henry the Navigator establishes school of navigation and cartography at Sagres in Portugal. 1428 Joan of Arc leads French armies against the English. 1453 End of Hundred Years' War between England and France. Johann Gutenberg uses first movable type to print Bible. 1469 Ferdinand of Aragon weds Isabella of Castile. 1492 Ferdinand and Isabella enter the Alhambra in Granada, crushing the last stronghold of the Moors. They finance the voyage of Christopher Columbus to the New World later in the year.