National Geographic : 1988 Dec
Slum with a view, Santa Marta clings precariously to the heights above booming Rio de Janeiro (below), where Ana Carmo dos Santos, left, plays with a neighbor. One of 400 such shantytowns, the favela harborsthousands of ruralmigrants, like Ana's mother, Artera do Carmo (right), and family, drawn to the city by des perate hopes for a better life. Poor educationis the curse of the favelas, where more than half the children never get past the second grade. Only 14 percent of all Brazilianchildrenfinish pri mary school.