National Geographic : 1960 Jan
Society NATIONAL GEOGRAPsHIn 6 . C 16th &AlStreets N.1i. Washington 6.D. C. l National Georaph Magazine ORGANIZED S 0*I 1888 "FOR THEHCRESEiAND IFUSIO OFSGOGRAPIC L The National Geographic Society is chartered in Washington, D. C., in accordance with the laws of the United States as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization ftrincreasing and diffusing geographic knowl edge and promoting research and exploration. The Society has cnducted more than 160 major expeditions and scien tific projects. It disseminates knowledge to millions through its world tanmous Nationig Geiographic Magazine, its 17 million color maps a year, its books, monographs, bulletins for schools, its information service tor press, radio, and television. MILVILLL BIEL GROSVINOR, President and Editor THOMAS W. Mc(KNW. Executive Vice President and Secretary ROBERT V. FLEMING, Vice President and Treasurer MEL.VIN M. PAYNE, Vice President and Associate Secretary FR EDERICK G. VOSBURGII, Vice President ROBERT I. DOYLE, Associate Secretary Coim/tte /for Research am/ Exploration I.YMAN J. BRI(;GS, Chairman ALEXANDER WIETMORE I.EONARI CARMICHAIlI. Vice Chairman Rear Adm. L. O. COI.B:RT WILLIAM E. WRATHER H11U11Gt. )DR'iDN A. REMINGTON KELLOGG Vice Adm. EMORY S. IAND Director, U. S. National Museum and thleSenior Otiicers of The Society Board of Trustees GILBERT GROSVIENOR, Chairman of the Board, formerly President, National Geographic Society, and Editor of its magazine (1899 195-) JOIN OIIVER I.A GORCE, Vice Chairman of the Board, formerly President and Editor, National Geographic Society (195--1957) LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director E1meritus, National Bureau of Standards EI.ONARD CARMICIHAEL Secretary. Smithsonian Institution L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired HUllGH 1..DRYDEN Deputy Administrator, National Aeronautics & Space Administration RO)BI RT V. FI .EMING Chairman of tie Board Riggs National Bank CRAWFORD II. GRIEENEWALT President, IF. 1. du Pont de Nemours & Company MEI.VILLE BEIlL GROSVENOR Editor, The National Geographic IELISHA HANSON General Counsel National Geographic Society IMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral. IU. S. Navy, Retired, tfrmerly President Air Transport Association CURTIS IF.It-MAY Vice Chief of Staff, U. S. Air Force H. RANDOI.PI1 MADDOX Vice President, American Telephone & Telegraph Company BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Editor, the Washington Star President, Associated Press THOMAS W. McKNEW Executive Vice President National Geographic Society MEIVIN M. PAYNE Vice President National Geographic Society LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER President, Rockefeller Brothers, Inc., and Jackson Hole Preserve JUAN T. TRIPPE President, Pan American World Airways EARL WARREN Chief Justice of the United States ALEXANDER WETMORE Research Associate Smithsonian Institution LLOYD B. WILSON Honorary Board Chairman, Chesa peake & Potomac Telephone Co. CONRAD L. WIRTH Director, National Park Service IU. S. Department of the Interior WILLIAM E. WRATIHER Director, LT.S. Geological Survey, Retired Assistant Secretaries: VERNON H. BREWSTER, THOMAS M. BEERS, WILLIAM T. BEILL, HERBERT T. HENDERSON, C. VERNON SANDERS: Assistant Treasurers: HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, WIILIAM H1. McCAULEY Herman J. A . C . Arens, Executive Assistant, and Gail H. Carroll, Secretary to the President and Editor; Lenore Williams, Secretary to the Executive Vice President; Sibyl Peck, Assistant to Chairman, and Leon J. Canova, Assistant to Vice Chairman, of the Board Copyright © 195I National Geoer:rphie Society. All rights reserved. Reproduction or use of tile whole or anIy part of the conltents without written permision is prohibited. Printed in U. S. A. Second-class postae paid at Washington. 1). C. . and at additional mailing offices. Cover design and title protected by international trademark. Articles and photographs are desired. For cntcria usied.Kerc-c i re-- ueratiui isimade. MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, Editor THOMAS W. McKNEW. Executive l'ic Prcs dent FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Associate Editor EDITORIAL STAFF Senir Assistant Editor: Franc Shor Assistant Editors: Robert L. Conly, Allan C. Fisher, Jr., John Scolield, Mason Sutherland Senior Staff: Andrew H. Brown, Nathaniel T. Kenney, I.uis Marden, Samuel W. Matthews, Kennet F. Weaver, Paul A. Zahl (Natural SciencesI or ign Staftf W. Robert Moore (Chief; T'lomas J. Aber crombie, David S. Boyer, Walter Meavers Edwards, Sowell Walker, M. Woodbridge Williams Issue Editor: William P. 1E.Graves Editorial Staff: Robert T. Cochran, Jr., John R. Hloopes, Jay Johnston, Stuart E. Jones, Howard LaFay, Edward J. Linehan, Bart McDowell. Carolyn Bennett Patterson, Peter T. White: Rose 1'. MacBryde, Winifred M. Myers (Assts. ; Dorothy M. Corson (Indexes) EditorialL.aout: Howard I . Paine i/iuo/ S\rtic,: Ralph Gray (Chie); Arthur P. Miller, Jr., Frank Sartwell Ncui Snri ic: Windsor P. Booth (Chiet): I.Lonellc Aikman, Edward Cornish, Matt C. McDade iook Sertiin, Merle Scvery (Chelt): Paul Jensen, Edwards Park Editorial Research: Mrarget (. Bledsoe (Chief): Ann K. Slolcomb (Asst., Werner Jannrey. Ie enia I.oder, Patitica Middlennmas, Patricia Rosenborg (Grographi RKscarnh: George Crossetice i(.hic-: l.ouics I:. Althofrt, New ion V. Blakeslee 1i/brar): sther Ann Mai on (Librarianl; V\iginia Carier IHills (Asst. , Katharine P. O'Donnell ILLUSTATIONS SI'AFF illustrationsEditor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Art Elitor: Andrew Poggenphil Asst. ll/ns. Editors: Robert L. Breedcn, W. I- . Garrett, Robert I. Gilka, .Leoiard J. Grand, Mary S. Grisold, Gilbert M. Grosvenor, Kip Ross, Thomas R. Smith; Charles Allmon (Incoming Photographs). Pictorial Re.sarchI: Geraldine Linder, Caro Stillwell (Librarian) Artist 6 N\aturaiist: Walter A. Weber Director of Phoograpiho:Janles M. Godbold Photographers: B. Anthony Stewart (Chief); Bates little hales, Thomas Nebbia, Kathleen Revis, Joseph Baylor Roberts, Robert F. Sisson, W. D. Vaughn, Volkmar Wentzel Photo l.ib: IEdwin L. Wisherd (Chief); Richard II. Stewart (Asst.); John I. Fletcher, Milton Ford, Donald McBaii, Guy Starling. Filmi Editor: Joseph M. Rideout Engraring & Printing: Dee J. Andella, Joe M. Barlett CARTOGRAPHIC STAFF Chief Cartographer:James M. Darley Assistant Chief Cartographer.:Newman Bumstead, Ralph I. McAleer Cartographers: John J. Brelhm, Wcllman Chamberlin, Richard Darley, Athos D. Grazzini, Apphia Holdstock, Victor J. Kelley, Walter K. Morrison, William T. Peele, Charles I.. Stern. Cartographic Artists: Irvin E. Alleman, William Palinstrom SECRETARY'S STAFF Administration: Sheldon Cary, Owen R. Anderson, Thomas I.. Hartman, M.D., Raymond 'I. McElligott, Jr., Stan Jennings, Charles F. Altlhorf John S. Dameron, Gladys A. Stoneburner. Accounting: F. Charles Brown, George F. Fogle, Martha K. Allen. Cashier: Frank S. Delk. Statistic: Everett C. Brown. Costs: Sargent C. Elliott. Procurement: Charles P. Bixel (Director); John P. M. Johnston. Payroll: Esther M. Lohrer, Marie S. Edwards. X\1emership Fulfill. ment: Roy J. Klockenbrink. Accounts Records: Della M. Hurt EIIROPEAN OFFICE W. E. Roscher (Director) Hulton touse; Fleet Street; London E. C . -, England ADVERTISING Director: John F. Connery; Regional Otfires -Newu York: Harley .. Mc)evitt; Chicago: I.eslie R. Gage; San F:ranciso: Donald F. Mikkelsen; I.ns An.'lerS: Jack V. Sheehian SCOVER: cading in ankle-deep mud, a rice farmer of strife-torn Laus Siends s /fields (pai',' 5).