National Geographic : 1960 Feb
NATIONAL Soctrt 16th &M Streets N.W. National Geographr Magazine ORANZE IN 188 "FO TH INRES AN DIFSO OF GEGAHCKO LDE The National Geographic Society is chartered in Washington, D. C., in accordance with the laws of the United States as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowl edge and promoting research and exploration. The Society has conducted more than 160 major expeditions and scien tific projects. It disseminates knowledge to millions through its world famous National Geographic Magazine, its 17 million color maps a year, its books, monographs, bulletins for schools, its information service for press, radio, and television. MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, President and Editor THOMAS W. McKNEW, Executive Vice President and Secretary ROBERT V. FLEMING, Vice President and Treasurer MELVIN M. PAYNE, Vice President and Associate Secretary FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Vice President ROBERT E. DOYLE, Associate Secretary Committee for Research and Exploration LYMAN J. BRIGGS, Chairman ALEXANDER WETMORE LEONARD CARMICHAEL Vice Chairman Rear AdmO RT Vice Adm. EMORY S. LAND Rear Adm. L. O . COLBERT MATTHEW W. STIRLING MATTHEW W. STIRLING HUGH L. DRYDEN Research Associate A. REMINGTON KELLOGG Smithsonian Institution Director, U. S. National Museum WILLIAM E. WRATHER and the Senior Officers of The Society Board of Trustees GILBERT GROSVENOR, Chairman of the Board, formerly President, National Geographic Society, and Editor of its magazine (1899-1954) JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE, Vice Chairman of the Board, formerly President and Editor, National Geographic Society (1954-1957) LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director Emeritus, National Bureau of Standards LEONARD CARMICHAEL Secretary, Smithsonian Institution L. O . COLBERT Rear Admiral, U. S . Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired HUGH L. DRYDEN Deputy Administrator, National Aeronautics & Space Administration ROBERT V. FLEMING Chairman of the Board Riggs National Bank CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT President, E. I . du Pont de Nemours & Company MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Editor, The National Geographic ELISHA HANSON General Counsel National Geographic Society EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired, formerly President Air Transport Association CURTIS E. LEMAY Vice Chief of Staff, U. S. Air Force H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Vice President, American Telephone & Telegraph Company BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Editor, the Washington Star President, Associated Press THOMAS W. McKNEW Executive Vice President National Geographic Society MELVIN M. PAYNE Vice President National Geographic Society LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER President, Rockefeller Brothers, Inc., and Jackson Hole Preserve JUAN T. TRIPPE President, Pan American World Airways EARL WARREN Chief Justice of the United States ALEXANDER WETMORE Research Associate Smithsonian Institution LLOYD B. WILSON Honorary Board Chairman, Chesa peake & Potomac Telephone Co. CONRAD L. WIRTH Director, National Park Service U. S. Department of the Interior WILLIAM E. WRATHER Director, U. S. Geological Survey, Retired Assistant Secretaries: VERNON H. BREWSTER, THOMAS M. BEERS, WILLIAM T. BELL, HERBERT T. HENDERSON, C. VERNON SANDERS; Assistant Treasurers: HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, WILLIAM H. McCAULEY Herman J. A. C. Arens, Executive Assistant, and Gail H. Carroll, Secretary to the President and Editor; Lenore Williams, Secretary to the Executive Vice President; Sibyl Peck, Assistant to Chairman, and Leon J. Canova, Assistant to Vice Chairman, of the Board Copyright © 1960 National Geographic Society. All rights reserved. Reproduction or use of the whole or any part of the contents without written permission is prohibited. Printed in U. S. A. Second-class postage paid at Washington. D. C.. and at additional mailing offices. Cover design and title protected by international trademark. Articles and photographs are desired. For material used, generous remuneration is made. MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, Editor THOMAS W. McKNEW, Executive Vice President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Associate Editor EDITORIAL STAFF Senior Assistant Editor: Franc Shor Assistant Editors: Robert L. Conly, Allan C. Fisher, Jr., John Scofield, Mason Sutherland Senior Staff Andrew H. Brown, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Luis Marden, Samuel W. Matthews, Kenneth F. Weaver, Paul A. Zahl (Natural Sciences) Foreign Staff: W. Robert Moore (Chief); Thomas J. Aber crombie, David S. Boyer, Walter Meayers Edwards, Howell Walker, M. Woodbridge Williams Issue Editor: Bart McDowell Editorial Staff: Robert T. Cochran, Jr., William P. E. Graves, Jacob Hay, John R. Hoopes, Jay Johnston Suart E. Jones, Howard LaFay, Edward J. Linehan, Carolyn Bennett Pat terson, Peter T. White; Rose T. MacBryde, Winifred M. Myers (Assts.); Dorothy M. Corson (Indexes) EditorialLayout: Howard E. Paine School Service: Ralph Gray (Chief); Katherine Crapster, Arthur P. Miller, Jr., Frank Sartwell News Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief); Lonnelle Aikman, Edward Cornish, Matt C. McDade Book Service: Merle Severy (Chief); Paul Jensen, Edwards Park Editorial Research: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Holcomb (Asst.), Werner Janney, Levenia Loder, Patricia Middlemas, Patricia Rosenborg Geographic Research: George Crossette (Chief); Louise F. Althoff, Newton V. Blakeslee Library: Esther Ann Manion (Librarian); Virginia Carter Hills (Asst.), Katharine P. O'Donnell ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF IllustrationsEditor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl Asst. Illus. Editors: Robert L. Breeden, W. E. Garrett, Robert E. Gilka, Leonard J. Grant, Mary S. Griswold, Gilbert M. Grosvenor, Kip Ross, Thomas R. Smith; Charles Allmon (Incoming Photographs). Pictorial Research: Geraldine Linder, Caro Stillwell (Librarian) Artist & Naturalist:Walter A. Weber Director of Photography:James M. Godbold Photographers: B. Anthony Stewart (Chief); Bates Little hales, Thomas Nebbia, Kathleen Revis, Joseph Baylor Roberts, Robert F. Sisson, W. D. Vaughn, Volkmar Wentzel Photo Lab: Edwin L. Wisherd (Chief); Richard H. Stewart (Asst.); John E. Fletcher, Milton Ford, Donald McBain, Guy Starling. Film Editor: Joseph M. Rideout Engraving & Printing: Dee J. Andella, Joe M. Barlett CARTOGRAPHIC STAFF Chief Cartographer:James M. Darley Assistant Chief Cartographers:Newman Bumstead, Ralph E. McAleer Cartographers: John J. Brehm, Wellman Chamberlin, Richard Darley, Athos D. Grazzini, Apphia Holdstock, Victor J. Kelley, Walter K. Morrison, William T. Peele, Charles L. Stern; Catherine Hart (Asst.) Cartographic Artists: Irvin E. Alleman, William Palmstrom SECRETARY'S STAFF Administration: Sheldon Cary, Owen R. Anderson, Thomas L. Hartman, M.D., Raymond T. McElligott, Jr., Stan Jennings, Charles F. Althoff, John S. Dameron, Gladys A. Stoneburner. Accounting: F. Charles Brown, George F. Fogle, Martha K. Allen. Cashier: Frank S. Delk. Statistics: Everett C. Brown. Costs: Sargent C. Elliott. Procurement: Charles P. Bixel (Director); John P. M. Johnston. Payroll: Esther M. Lohrer, Marie S. Edwards. Membership Fulfill ment: Roy J. Klockenbrink. Accounts Records: Della M. Hurt EUROPEAN OFFICE W. E. Roscher (Director) Hulton House; Fleet Street; London E. C. 4, England ADVERTISING Director: John F. Connery; Regional Offices-New York: Harley L. McDevitt; Chicago: Leslie R. Gage; San Francisco: Donald F. Mikkelsen; Los Angeles: Jack V. Sheehan 4 COVER: Black sombrero and bright manta dress a Chilean cowboy (page 184).