National Geographic : 1960 Jul
Watery Hawaii: Fiftieth State Span 1,600 Miles of Oce THE 71 FACES on the opposite page add up to one of the trademarks of Hawaii. Gathered for a happy occa sion-graduation day at the university in Honolulu-these citizens of the newest of the United States typify the world-wide mixture of peoples and cultures analyzed in the preced ing article. The wonders of this far-flung State are charted on the new five-section Atlas Map of Hawaii sent to National Geographic mem bers with this issue of their magazine.* The map, carrying 18 explanatory notes and hun dreds of place names in melodious Hawaiian, will guide you to beauties and rarities of nature-whether you travel in imagination or by jet aircraft and outrigger canoe, whether you turn mauka, toward the mountains, or makai, toward the sea. The combined land surface of the Hawaiian Islands amounts to only 6,439 square miles, which makes it the fourth smallest State in the Union (after Rhode Island, Delaware, and Connecticut). Yet these islands, flung across the Tropic of Cancer in the middle of the North Pacific, form a chain 1,600 miles long -equal to the distance from New York to Cheyenne, Wyoming, and spanning more meridians than Texas. What most people mean when they refer to Hawaii are the eight largest islands, shown in detail on the central portion of the new map. A long inset across the top displays 25 islands of the new State, a glamorous mid-ocean strand of beads. Northwest of the main islands, from Nihoa to Pearl and Hermes Reef, stretches the Hawaiian Is lands National Wildlife Refuge. Here one finds probably the only visitors that commute between the 50th State and the 49th: Pacific golden plovers, bristle-thighed cur lews, and wandering tattlers, that use Hawaii as a wintering ground or a way station on flights from SAlaska, 2,500 miles away. ) On Necker and Nihoa Islands are remains of terraces and low stone platforms built by long-van an ished Polynesians. Master sailors, they may have abandoned their isles for bigger ones to the south east. Westernmost islands on the map are Kure and Midway, where Japan's bid to follow up its Pearl Harbor attack was turned back by U. S. naval and air power. Navy controlled Midway, shown enlarged in an inset, includes an unsinkable aircraft carrier, Sand Island. On the detailed inset of Oahu, home of the State capital city of Honolulu, you can see some of the odd-shaped markings-rather like bunches of bananas-that indicate coral reefs. Cleared from the entrance to historic Pearl Harbor, they still threaten sailors in some of Oahu's other bays and lagoons. In Kaneohe Bay, on the northeastern coast, the new State's largest cluster of reefs pro vides a fabulous field of research for the University of Hawaii's Marine Laboratory. Eternally building, the tiny polyps do their patient bit to change the island's shoreline. Meanwhile, on the island of Hawaii, volcanoes are at work helping to change the 50th State in their own way, with massive overlays of lava. One simple general rule will add to the en joyment of this new map. In pronouncing place names, give each vowel its full value. A kamaaina, or old island hand, may mark you down as a malihini, or newcomer, but he won't get huhu, or huffy, about it. Especially now that the oldest kamaaina lives in the newest malihini to the Union. * This new map forms Plate 15 in The Society's Atlas Series and is the 18th uniform-sized Atlas Map issued since the series began in January, 1958. To bind their maps, more than 230,000 members have ordered the convenient Atlas Folio, at $4.85. Single maps of the series, at 50¢ each-or a packet of the 14 maps issued in 1958 and 1959, at $5.50 may be ordered from the National Geographic So ciety, Dept. 45, Washington 6, D. C. A combination of map packet and Folio is available at $9.95 . KODACHROMEBY NATIONALGEOGRAPHICPHOTOGRAPHERTHOMASNEBBIA © N.G .S.