National Geographic : 1960 Nov
NATIONAL GEOGRAI O6th & lStret N.. 16th & il Streets N,1W., - frIH4^y] -G p EOGAPHIc- NO* .ci National Geographic Magazine The National Geographic Society is chartered in Washington, D. C.. in accordance with the laws of the United States as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowl edge and proinoting research and exploration. The Socity has conducted more than 160 major expeditions and scien tific projects. It disseminates knowledge to millions through its world famous National Geographic Magazine, its 17 million color maps a year, its books, monogra'phs, bulletins tor schools, its information service for press, radio, and television. MELVILLI BELL GROSVINOR, President and Editor THOMAS W. McKNEW, Executive Vice President and Secretary ROBERT V. FLEMING, Vice President and Treasurer MILVIN M. PAYNE, Vice President and Associate Secretary FREDERICK G. VOSBURGII, Vice President ROBERT E. DOYLE, Associate Secretary Committee for Research amd Exploration LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Chairman LYMAN J. BRIGGS Chairman :meritus Rear Adm. L. O . COLBERT HIUGH L. DRYDEN A. REMINGTON KEILLOGG Director, IT. S. National Museum and the Senior Officers Boari of Trustees ALEXANDER WETMORE Vice Chairman Vice Adnm IMORY S. IAND MATTHElW W. STIRLING Research Associate Smithso ian Institution WILLIAM 1. RATHER of The Society GILBERT GROSVENOR. Chairman of the Board. formerlv President, National Geographic Society, and Editor of its magazine (1899-1951) ROBERT B. ANIDERSON Secretary of the Treasury LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director Emeritus, National Bureau of Standards LEONARD CARMICHAE I Secretary, Smithsonian Institution L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, I. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired HIt GH L. DRYDEN l)Deputy Administrator, National Artonautics& Space Administration ROBIERT V. FLEMING Chairman of the Board Riggs National Bank CRAWFORD1. GR EENEWALT President, E. I.du Pont de Nemours & Company MELVII.IE BIEI .L GROSVENOR Editor, National Geographic EI.ISHA HANSON General (ounsel National Geographic Society EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral, I . S . Navy, Retired, tfrmerly President Air Transport Association CIRTIS I. LIfMAY Vice Chief of Staff, U. S. Air Force 1. RANDOILPH MADDOX Vice President (Ret.), American Telephone & Telegraph Company BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Editor, theWashington Star President.Associated Press THOMAS W. McKNEW Executive Vice President National Geographic Society MELVIN M. PAYNE Vice President National Geographic Society LAURANCE S. ROCKEFE.LER President, Rockefeller Brothers, Inc. and Jackson Hole Preserve JUAN T. TRIPPI President,Pan American World Airways IARI WARREN Chief Justice of the Uni tedStates AL XANDIER WIETMORE Research Associate Smithsonian Institution LLOYD B. WIISON Honorary Board Chairman, Chesa peake & Potomac Telephone Co. CONRAD 1..WIRTIH Director, National Park Service I. S. Department of theInterior WILLIAM I. WRATHtlR Director. I'.S. Geological Survey, Retired Asst. Secretaries: VI RNON H1. BREWSTER, THOMAS M. BEERS, WM. T. BELL, CHIARI.ES P. BIXEL, HERBIRT T. HENDERSON, C. VERNON SANDERS. Asst. Treasurers: HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, WM. IH.McCAULEY. Assoc. Counsel: ARTHUR B. HANSON Herman J. A. C . Arens, ExecutiveAssistant, and Gail H. Carroll, Secretary to the Presidentand Editor;Lenore Williams. Secretary to the Executive Vice President; Sibyl Peck, Assistant to Chairman of the Board; Leon J. Canova. Administrative Assistant C ri iht C) 19 iONl:,etion:, l (eolr:l,hi s io,'it . \ris treee, . ,rn ,mtionor usi ,f desired. lor naterial used, rIr mr:nooniv iad,. MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, Editor THOMAS W. McKNEW, Executive Vice President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH. Associate Editor EDITORIAL STAFF Senior Assistant Editor: Franc Shor Assistant Editors: Robert L. Conly, Allan C. Fisher, Jr., John Scofield, Mason Sutherland Senior Staff: Andrew H. Brown, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Luis Marden, Samuel W. Matthews, Kenneth F. Weaver, Paul A. Zahl (Natural Sciences) Foreign Staff W. Robert Moore (Chief); Thomas J. Aber crombie, David S. Boyer, Walter Meayers Edwards, M. Woodbridge Williams Issue Editor: Howell Walker Editorial Staff Jules B. Billard, Robert T. Cochran, Jr., Rowe Findley, William P. E . Graves, Jacob Hay, John R. Hoopes, Jay Johnston, Stuart E. Jones, Howard La Fay, Edward J. Linehan, Bart McDowell, Carolyn Bennett Patterson, James A. Reynolds, Peter T. White; Rose T. MacBryde, Winifred M. Myers (Assts.); Dorothy M. Corson (Indexes); Rosalie K. Millerd (Central Files) EditorialLayout. Howard E. Paine School Service: Ralph Gray (Chief); Katherine Crapster, Arthur P. Miller, Jr., Frank Sartwell News Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief); Lonnelle Aikman, Edward Cornish, Matt C. McDade Book Service: Merle Severy (Chief); Wayne Barrett, Paul Jensen, Robert M. McClung, Edwards Park Editorial Research: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Holcomb (Asst.), Werner Janney, Levenia Loder, Patricia Middlemas, Patricia Rosenborg Geographic Research: George Crossette (Chief); Louise F. Althoff, Newton V. Blakeslee Library: Esther Ann Manion (Librarian); Virginia Carter Hills (Asst.), Katharine P. O'Donnell ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF IllustrationsEditor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl Asst. Illus. Editors: Robert L. Breeden, W. E. Garrett, Robert E. Gilka, Leonard J. Grant, Mary S. Griswold, Gilbert M. Grosvenor, Kip Ross, Thomas R. Smith, Charles Allmon (Incoming Photographs). Pictorial Research: Geraldine Linder, Caro Stillwell (Librarian) Artists: Walter A. Weber (Naturalist), Peter V. Bianchi Director of Photography:James M. Godbold Photographers:B. Anthony Stewart (Chief); Dean Conger, Bates Littlehales, Thomas Nebbia, Kathleen Revis, Joseph Baylor Roberts, Robert F. Sisson, W. D. Vaughn, Volkmar Wentzel Photo Lab: Edwin L. Wisherd (Chief); Richard H. Stewart (Asst.), John E. Fletcher, Milton Ford, Donald McBain, Guy Starling Engraving & Printing: Dee J. Andella, Joe M. Barlett CARTOGRAPHIC STAFF Chief Cartographer: James M. Darley Assistant Chief Cartographers:Newman Bumstead, Ralph E. McAleer Cartographers: John J. Brehm, Wellman Chamberlin, Richard Darley, Athos D. Grazzini, Apphia Holdstock, Victor J. Kelley, Walter K. Morrison, William T. Peele, Charles L. Stern, Catherine Hart (Asst.) CartographicArtists: Irvin E. Alleman, William Palmstrom SECRETARY'S STAFF Administrative: Sheldon Cary, Owen R. Anderson, Thomas L. Hartman, M.D., Raymond T. McElligott, Jr., Stan Jennings, Charles F. Althoff. Accounting: F. Charles Brown, George F. Fogle, Martha K. Allen. Cashier: Frank S. Delk Statistics: Everett C. Brown. Costs: Sargent C. Elliott Procurement:John P. M. Johnston Payroll: Esther M. Lohrer, Marie S. Edwards Aemnbership Fulfillment: Roy J. Klockenbrink Accounts Records: Della M. Hurt EUROPEAN OFFICE W. E. Roscher (Director) 161-166 Fleet Street, London E. C . 4, England ADVERTISING Director: John F. Connery; Regional Ofices-New York: Harley L. McDevitt; Chicago: Leslie R. Gage; San Francisco: Donald F. Mikkelsen; Los Angeles: Jack V. Sheehan 4 COVER: Pennant-tailedJamaican hummingbird sips nectar from a hibiscus (page 658). Washington 6, D. C.