National Geographic : 1961 Jan
NATIONAL 16th & M Streets N.W. Washington 6, D. C. National Geographic Magazine ORGANIZED IN 18 "FOR T AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" The National Geographic Society is chartered in Washington, D. C., in accordance with the laws of the United States as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowl edge and promoting research and exploration. The Society has conducted more than 160 major expeditions and scien tific projects. It disseminates knowledge to millions through its world famous National Geographic Magazine, its 17 million color maps a year, its books, monographs, bulletins for schools, its information service for press, radio, and television. MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, President and Editor THOMAS W. McKNEW. Executive Vice President and Secretary ROBERT V. FLEMING, Vice President and Treasurer MELVIN M. PAYNE, Vice President and Associate Secretary FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Vice President ROBERT E. DOYLE, Associate Secretary Committee for Research and Exploration LEONARD CARMICHAEL, LYMAN J. BRIGGS Chairman Emeritus Rear Adm. L. O. COLBERT HUGH L. DRYDEN A. REMINGTON KELLOGG Director, U. S. National Museum Chairman ALEXANDER WETMORE Vice Chairman Vice Adm. EMORY S. LAND MATTHEW W. STIRLING Research Associate Smithsonian Institution WILLIAM E. WRATHER and the Senior Officers of The Society Board of Trustees GILBERT GROSVENOR, Chairman of the Board, formerly President, National Geographic Society, and Editor of its magazine (1899-1954) ROBERT B. ANDERSON Secretary of the Treasury LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director Emeritus, National Bureau of Standards LEONARD CARMICHAEL Secretary, Smithsonian Institution L. O . COLBERT Rear Admiral, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired HIGH L. DRYDEN Deputy Administrator, National Aeronautics & Space Administration ROBERT V. FLEMING Chairman of the Board Riggs National Bank CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT President, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Editor, National Geographic EIISHA HANSON General Counsel National Geographic Society EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired, tormerly President Air Transport Association CURTIS E. L -MAY Vice Chief of Staff, U. S. Air Force H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Vice President, American Tele phone & Telegraph Company (Ret.) BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Editor, the Washington Star President, Associated Press THOMAS W. McKNEW Executive Vice President National Geographic Society WALTER K. MYERS, M.D. Physician MELVIN M. PAYNE Vice President National Geographic Society LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER President, Rockefeller Brothers, Inc. and Jackson Hole Preserve JUAN T. TRIPPE President, Pan American World Airways EARL WARREN Chief Justice of the United States ALEXANDER WETMORE Research Associate Smithsonian Institution LLOYD B. WILSON Honorary Board Chairman, Chesa peake & Potomac Telephone Co. CONRAD L. WIRTH Director, National Park Service U. S. Department of the Interior WILLIAM E. WRATHER Director, U. S . Geological Survey, Retired Asst. Secretaries: VERNON H. BREWSTER, THOMAS M. BEERS, WM. T. BELL, CHARLES P. BIXEL, HERBERT T. HENDERSON, C. VERNON SANDERS. Asst. Treasurers: HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, WM. H. McCAULEY. Assoc. Counsel: ARTHUR B. HANSON Herman J. A . C . Arens, Executive Assistant, and Gail H. Carroll, Secretary to the President and Editor; Lenore Williams, Secretary to the Executive Vice President; Sibyl Peck, Assistant to Chairman of the Board; Leon J. Canova, Administrative Assistant Copyright © 1960 National Geographic Society. All rights reserved. Reproduction or use of the whole or any part of the contents without written permission is prohibited. Printed in U. S. A. Second-clas postage paid at Washington. D. C., and at additional mailing offices. Cover design and title protected by international trademark. Articles and photographs are desired. For material used. generous remuneration is made. MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, Editor THOMAS W. McKNEW, Executive Vice President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Associate Editor EDITORIAL STAFF Senior Assistant Editor: Franc Shor Assistant Editors: Robert L. Conly, Allan C. Fisher, Jr., John Scofield, Mason Sutherland Issue Editor: Samuel W. Matthews Senior Staff: Andrew H. Brown, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Luis Marden, Kenneth F. Weaver, Paul A. Zahl (Natural Sciences) Foreign Staff W. Robert Moore (Chief); Thomas J. Aber crombie, David S. Boyer, Walter Meayers Edwards, Kip Ross, Howell Walker, M. Woodbridge Williams Editorial Stab: Jules B. Billard, Robert T. Cochran, Jr., Rowe Findley, William P. E. Graves, Jacob Hay, John R. Hoopes, Jay Johnston, Stuart E. Jones, Howard La Fay, Edward J. Linehan, Bart McDowell, Carolyn Bennett Patterson, James A. Reynolds, Peter T. White; Rose T. MacBryde, Winifred M. Myers (Assts.); Dorothy M. Corson (Indexes); Rosalie K. Millerd (Central Files) Editorial Layout: Howard E. Paine School Service: Ralph Gray (Chief); Katherine Crapster, Arthur P. Miller, Jr., Frank Sartwell News Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief); Lonnelle Aikman, Edward Cornish, Matt C. McDade Book Service: Merle Severy (Chief); Wayne Barrett, Paul Jensen, Robert M. McClung, Edwards Park Editorial Research: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Holcomb (Asst.), Werner Janney, Levenia Loder, Patricia Middlemas, Patricia Rosenborg Geographic Research:George Crossette (Chief); Newton V. Blakeslee (Asst.), Louise F. Althoff Library: Esther Ann Manion (Librarian); Virginia Carter Hills (Asst.), Katharine P. O'Donnell ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF Illustrations Editor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl Asst. Illus. Editors: Robert L. Breeden, W. E. Garrett, Robert E. Gilka, Leonard J. Grant, Mary S. Griswold, Gilbert M. Grosvenor, Thomas R. Smith, Charles Allmon (Incoming Photographs). Pictorial Research: Geraldine Linder, Caro Stillwell (Librarian) Artists: Walter A. Weber (Naturalist), Peter V. Bianchi Director ofPhotography:James M. Godbold; Joseph Baylor Roberts (Asst.) Photographers:B. Anthony Stewart (Chief); Dean Conger, Bates Littlehales, Thomas Nebbia, Kathleen Revis, Robert F. Sisson, W. D. Vaughn, Volkmar Wentzel Photo Lab: Edwin L. Wisherd (Chief); Richard H. Stewart (Asst.), John E. Fletcher, Milton Ford, Donald McBain, Guy Starling Engraving & Printing: Dee J. Andella, Joe M. Barlett CARTOGRAPHIC STAFF Chief Cartographer: James M. Darley Assistant Chief Cartographers: Newman Bumstead, Ralph E. McAleer Cartographers: John J. Brehm, Wellman Chamberlin, Richard Darley, Athos D. Grazzini, Apphia Holdstock, Victor J. Kelley, Walter K. Morrison, William T. Peele, Charles L. Stern, Catherine Hart (Asst.) Cartographic Artists: Irvin E. Alleman, William Palmstrom SECRETARY'S STAFF Administrative: Owen R. Anderson, Thomas L. Hartman, M.D., Raymond T. McElligott, Jr., Stan Jennings, Charles F. Althoff. Accounting: F. Charles Brown, George F. Fogle, Martha K. Allen. Cashier: Frank S. Delk Statistics: Everett C. Brown. Costs: Sargent C. Elliott Procurement: John P. M. Johnston Payroll: Esther M. Lohrer, Marie S. Edwards Membership Fulfillment: Roy J. Klockenbrink Accounts Records: Della M. Hurt EUROPEAN OFFICE W. E. Roscher (Director) 161-166 Fleet Street, London E. C. 4, England ADVERTISING Director: John F. Connery; Regional Offices-New York: Harley L. McDevitt; Chicago: Leslie R. Gage; San Francisco: Donald F. Mikkelsen; Los Angeles; Jack V. Sheehan 4 COVER: Dusk sets the Whit e House aglow with lights; sandstone pillars grace the North Portico (page 2).