National Geographic : 1961 Feb
NATIONAL GE Society 16th & M Streets N. 1. National Geographic Magazine 0- 3 0~ - , , 3S 0 * ~ S S The National Geographic Society is chartered in Washington, D. C., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowl edge and promoting research and exploration. The Society has conducted more than 160 major expeditions and scien tific projects. It disseminates knowledge to millions through its world famous National Geographic Magazine, its 19 million color maps a year, its books, monographs, bulletins for schools, its information service for press, radio, and television. MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, President and Editor THOMAS W. McKNEW, Executive Vice President and Secretary ROBERT V. FLEMING, Vice President and Treasurer MELVIN M. PAYNE, Vice President and Associate Secretary FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Vice President ROBERT E. DOYLE, Associate Secretary Committee for Research and Exploration LEONARD CARMICHAEI LYMAN J. BRIGGS Chairman Emeritus Rear Adm. L. O. COLBERT HUGH L. DRYDEN A. REMINGTON KELLOGG Director, U. S. National Museum and the Senior Officers ., Chairman ALEXANDER WETMORE Vice Chairman Vice Adm. EMORY S. LAND MATTHEW W. STIRLING Research Associate Smithsonian Institution WILLIAM E. WRATHER of The Society Board of Trustees GILBERT GROSVENOR, Chairman of the Board, formerly President, National Geographic Society, and Editor of its magazine (1899-1954) ROBERT B. ANDERSON BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Secretary of the Treasury, 1957-61 Editor, the Washington Star LYMAN J. BRIGGS President, Associated Press Director Emeritus, National THOMAS W. McKNEW Bureau of Standards Executive Vice President LEONARD CARMICHAEL National Geographic Society Secretary, Smithsonian Institution WALTER K. MYERS M.D WALTER K. MYERS, M.D. L. O . COLBERT Physician Rear Admiral, U. S . Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired MELVIN M. PAYNE HUGH L. DRYDEN Vice President Deputy Administrator, National National Geographic Society Aeronautics & Space Administration LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER ROBERT V. FLEMING President, Rockefeller Brothers, Inc. Chairman of the Board and Jackson Hole Preserve Riggs National Bank JUAN T. TRIPPE CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT President, Pan American President, E. I . du Pont World Airways de Nemours & Company EARL WARREN MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Chief Justice of the United States Editor, National Geographic E A HANSON ALEXANDER WETMORE ELISHA HANSON Research Associate National Geographic Society Smithsonian Institution EMORY S. LAND LLOYD B. WILSON Vice Admiral, U. S . Navy, Honorary Board Chairman, Chesa Retired, formerly President peake & Potomac Telephone Co. Air Transport Association CONRAD L. WIRTH CURTIS E. LiMAY Director, National Park Service Vice Chief of Staff, U. S. Air Force U. S. Department of the Interior H. RANDOLPH MADDOX WILLIAM E. WRATHER Vice President, American Tele- Director, U. S . Geological phone & Telegraph Company (Ret.) Survey, Retired Asst. Secretaries: VERNON H. BREWSTER, THOMAS M. BEERS, WM. T. BELL, CHARLES P. BIXEL, HERBERT T. HENDERSON, C. VERNON SANDERS. Asst. Treasurers: HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, WM. H . McCAULEY. Assoc. Counsel: ARTHUR B. HANSON Herman J. A. C. Arens, Executive Assistant, and Gail H. Carroll, Secretary to the President and Editor; Lenore Williams, Secretary to the Executive Vice President; Sibyl Peck, Assistant to Chairman of the Board; Leon J. Canova, Administrative Assistant Copyright © 1961 Nltional Geographic Society. All rights reserved. Reprodution or use of tile whoh" or any lart of tile colt~ets without written reri aion is prohibited. printed dil c. S. . xeod-chs potam e pid xt Washinto. i). C ..xxd at additioa, l, aili,. office. ('over desizll ild title proti cteid by interntionl trademark. Articles a; nd pllhotogralhs are d..ired. For m trial used. generousreruneration is made.. MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, Editor THOMAS W. McKNEW, Executive Vice President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH. Associate Editor EDITORIAL STAFF Senior Assistant Editor: Franc Shor Auistant Editors: Robert L. Conly, Allan C. Fisher, Jr., John Scofield, Mason Sutherland Senior Staff Andrew H. Brown, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Luis Marden, Samuel W. Matthews, Kenneth F. Weaver, Paul A. Zahl (Natural Sciences) Foreign Staff W. Robert Moore (Chief); Thomas J. Aber crombie, David S. Boyer, Walter Meayers Edwards, Kip Ross, Howell Walker, M. Woodbridge Williams Issue Editor:Jules B. Billard Editorial Staff: Robert T. Cochran, Jr., Rowe Findley, William P. E. Graves, Jacob Hay, John R. Hoopes, Jay Johnston, Stuart E. Jones, Howard La Fay, Edward J. Linehan, Barr McDowell, Carolyn Bennett Patterson, James A. Reynolds, Peter T. White; Rose T. MacBryde, Winifred M. Myers (Assts.); Dorothy M. Corson (In dexes); Rosalie K. Millerd (Central Files) Editorial Layout: Howard E. Paine School Service: Ralph Gray (Chief); Katherine Crapster, Arthur P. Miller, Jr., Frank Sartwell News Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief); Lonnelle Aikman, Edward Cornish, Matt C. McDade Book Service: Merle Severy (Chief); Wayne Barrett, Paul Jensen, Robert M. McClung, Edwards Park EditorialResearch: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Holcomb (Asst.), Werner Janney, Levenia Loder, Patricia Middlemas, Patricia Rosenborg Geographic Research: George Crossette (Chief); Newton V. Blakeslee (Asst.), Louise F. Althoff Library: Esther Ann Manion (Librarian); Virginia Carter Hills (Asst.), Katharine P. O'Donnell ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF IllustrationsEditor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl Asst. Illus. Editors: Robert L. Breeden, W. E. Garrett, Robert E. Gilka, Leonard J. Grant, Mary S. Griswold, Gilbert M. Grosvenor, Thomas R. Smith, Charles Allmon (Incoming Photographs). Pictorial Research: Geraldine Linder, Caro Stillwell (Librarian) Artists: Walter A. Weber (Naturalist), Peter V. Bianchi Director of Photography:James M. Godbold; Joseph Baylor Roberts (Asst.) Photographers:B. Anthony Stewart (Chief); Dean Conger, Bates Littlehales, Thomas Nebbia, Kathleen Revis, Robert F. Sisson, W. D. Vaughn, Volkmar Wentzel Photo Lab: Edwin L. Wisherd (Chief); Richard H. Stewart (Asst.), John E. Fletcher, Milton Ford, Donald McBain, Guy Starling Engraving& Printing:Dee J. Andella, Joe M. Barlett CARTOGRAPHIC STAFF Chief Cartographer:James M. Darley Assistant Chief Cartographers:Newman Bumstead, Ralph E. McAleer Cartographers: John J. Brehm, Wellman Chamberlin, Richard Darley, Athos D. Grazzini, Apphia Holdstock, Victor J. Kelley, Walter K. Morrison, William T. Peele, Charles L. Stern, Catherine Hart (Asst.) CartographicArtists: Irvin E. Alleman, William Palmstrom SECRETARY'S STAFF Administrative: Owen R. Anderson, Thomas L. Hartman, M.D., Raymond T. McElligott, Jr., Stan Jennings, Charles F. Althoff. Accounting: F. Charles Brown, George F. Fogle, Martha K. Allen. Cashier: Frank S. Delk Statistics: Everett C. Brown. Costs: Sargent C. Elliott Procurement: John P. M . Johnston Payroll: Esther M. Lohrer, Marie S, Edwards Membership Fulfillment: Roy J. Klockenbrink Accounts Records: Della M. Hurt EUROPEAN OFFICE W. E. Roscher (Director) 161-166 Fleet Street, London E. C. 4, England ADVERTISING Director: John F. Connery; Regional Offices-New York: Harley L. McDevitt; Chicago:Leslie R. Gage; San Francisco: Donald F. Mikkelsen; Los Angeles: Jack V. Sheehan 4 COVER: Palmwood spear and painted shield protect an Arawe hunter of New Britain (page 271).