National Geographic : 1961 Apr
NATIONAL GEOG 16th & Al Streets N. IF. / Wash National Geographic Magazine 0. : a-. y: -y r4Ir a'v.>r ;L r ac a..z ,_. ,a at. The National Geographic Society is chartered in Washington, D. C., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowl edge and promoting research and exploration. The Society has conducted more than 160 major expeditions and scien tific projects. It disseminates knowledge to millions through its world famous National Geographic Magazine, its 19 million color maps a year. its books, monographs, bulletins for schools, its information service for press, radio, and television. MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, President and Editor THOMAS W. McKNEW, Executive Vice President and Secretary ROBERT V. FLEMING, Vice President and Treasurer MELVIN M. PAYNE, Vice President and Associate Secretary FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Vice President ROBERT E. DOYLE, Vice President and Associate Secretary THOMAS M. BEERS, Associate Secretary Committee Jfr Research and Exploration LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Chairman LYMAN J. BRIGGS Chairman Emeritus Rear Adm. L. O. COLBERT HUGH L. DRYDEN A. REMINGTON KELLOGG Director, U. S. National Museum and the Senior Officers Board of Trustees ALEXANDER WETMORE Vice Chairman Vice Adm. EMORY S. LAND MATTHEW W. STIRLING Research Associate Smithsonian Institution WILLIAM E. WRATHER of The Society GILBERT GROSVENOR, Chairman of the Board, formerly President, National Geographic Society, and Editor of its magazine (1899-1954) ROBERT B. ANDERSON Secretary of the Treasury, 1957-61 LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director Emeritus, National Bureau of Standards LEONARD CARMICHAEL Secretary, Smithsonian Institution L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired HUGH L. DRYDEN Deputy Administrator, National Aeronautics & Space Administration ROBERT V. FLEMING Chairman of the Board Riggs National Bank CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT President, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Editor, National Geographic ELISHA HANSON General Counsel National Geographic Society EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired, formerly President Air Transport Association CURTIS E. LEMAY Vice Chief of Staff, U. S. Air Force H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Vice President, American Tele phone & Telegraph Company (Ret.) BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Editor, the Washington Star President, Associated Press THOMAS W. McKNEW Executive Vice President National Geographic Society WALTER K. MYERS, M.D. Physician MELVIN M. PAYNE Vice President National Geographic Society LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER Chairman of the Board, Rockefeller Brothers, Inc., and President Jackson Hole Preserve JUAN T. TRIPPE President, Pan American World Airways EARL WARREN Chief Justice of the United States ALEXANDER WETMORE Research Associate Smithsonian Institution LLOYD B. WILSON - onorary Board Chairman, Chesa peake & Potomac Telephone Co. CONRAD L. WIRTH Director, National Park Service U. S. Department of the Interior WILLIAM E. WRATHER Director, U. S . Geological Survey, Retired Asst. Secretaries: VERNON H. BREWSTER, WM. T. BELL, CHARLES P. BIXEL, HERBERT T. HENDERSON, C. VIRNON SANDERS. Asst. Treasurers: HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, WM. H. McCAULEY. Assoc. Counsel: ARTHUR B. HANSON Herman J. A . C . Arens, Executive Assistant, and Gail H. Carroll, Secretary to the President and Editor; Lenore Williams, Secretary to the Executive Vice President; Sibyl Peck, Assistant to Chairman of the Board; Leon J. Canova, Administrative Assistant (dopyrimht © 191t Nain: (,a o r: h,,it So ity. All rights reserved. Replroduction or ise of the orn of te ctttnts wwithout wt Ii, ris i- ,is prohibited. Printed in U. S . 5. Scond-,tos iort: .'.lid tt tV5oohio oto. 1).C..atd o t ,do itioooal iling offices, ('o r design and title Iprott,i . d )byinternational trademl ark. Artiels allnd photograph are deired. For nnhterial lus *ld. tellnroul relmtncr: tiotl is niade. MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR. Editor THOMAS W. McKNEW, Executive Vice President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH. Associate Editor EDITORIAL STAFF Senior Assistant Editor: Franc Shor Assistant Editors: Robert L. Conly, Allan C. Fisher, Jr., John Scofield, Mason Sutherland Issue Editor: Samuel W. Matthews Senior Staff: Andrew H. Brown, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Luis Marden, Kenneth F. Weaver, Paul A. Zahl (Natural Sciences) Foreign Staff: W. Robert Moore (Chief); Thomas J. Aber crombie, David S. Boyer, Walter Meayers Edwards, Kip Ross, Howell Walker, M. Woodbridge Williams Editorial Staff Jules B. Billard, Robert T. Cochran, Jr., Rowe Findley, William P. E. Graves, Jacob Hay, John R. Hoopes, Jay Johnston, Stuart E. Jones, Howard La Fay, Edward J. Linehan, Bart McDowell, Carolyn Bennett Patterson, James A. Reynolds, Peter T. White; Rose T. MacBryde, Winifred M. Myers (Assts.): Dorothy M. Corson (Indexes); Rosalie K. 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Pictorial Research: Geraldine Linder, Caro Stillwell (Librarian) Artists: Walter A. Weber (Naturalist), Peter V. Bianchi Director of Photography:James M. Godbold; Joseph Baylor Roberts (Asst.) Photographers: B. Anthony Stewart (Chief); Dean Conger, John E. Fletcher, Bates Littlehales, Thomas Nebbia, Kath leen Revis, Robert F. Sisson, W. D. Vaughn, Volkmar Wentzel Photo Lab: Edwin L. Wisherd (Chief); Richard H. Stewart (Asst.), Milton Ford, Donald McBain, Guy Starling Engraving & Printing:Dee J. Andella, Joe M. Barlett CARTOGRAPHIC STAFF Chief Cartographer:James M. Darley Assistant Chief Cartographers:Newman Bumstead, Ralph E. McAleer Cartographers: John J. Brehm, Wellman Chamberlin, Richard Darley, Athos D. Grazzini, Apphia Holdstock, Victor J. Kelley, Walter K. Morrison, William T. Peele, Charles L. Stern, Catherine Hart (Asst.) Cartographic Artists: Irvin i. Alleman, William Palmstrom SECRETARY'S STAFF Administrative: Owen R. Anderson, Thomas L. Hartman, M.D., Raymond T. McElligott, Jr., Stan Jennings, Charles F. Althoff. Accounting: F. Charles Brown George F. Fogle, Martha K. Allen. Cashier: Frank S. Delk Statistics: Everett C. Brown. Costs: Sargent C. Elliott Procurement: John P. M. Johnston Payroll: Esther M. Lohrer, Marie S. Edwards Membership Fulfillment: Roy J. Klockenbrink Accounts Records: Della M. Hurt EUROPEAN OFFICE W. E. Roscher (Director) 161-166 Fleet Street, London E. C . 4, England ADVERTISING Director: John F. Connery; Regional Offices-New York: Harley L. McDevitt; Chicago: Leslie R. Gage; San Francisco: Donald F. Mikkelsen; Los Angeles: Jack V. Sheehan 4 COVER: Federal troops in 1863 storm Charleston's BatteryVWagner with rifles, bayonets, and fists (page 452).