National Geographic : 1961 Jun
NATIONAL GEOGRA 16th & M Streets N.W . Washington 6, D. C. National Geographic Magazine apllc~lso~ rl~rsd 0~las 0 0 0 0~~Ts4~~;L~~ll ~t ~ The National Geographic Society is chartered in Washington, D. C., in accordance with the laws of the United States, as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization for increasing and diffusing geographic knowl edge and promoting research and exploration. The Society has conducted more than 160 major expeditions and scien tific projects. It disseminates knowledge to millions through its world famous National Geographic Magazine, its 19 million color maps a year, its books, monographs, bulletins for schools, its information service for press, radio, and television. MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, President and Editor THOMAS W. McKNEW, Executive Vice President and Secretary ROBERT V. FLEMING, Vice President and Treasurer MELVIN M. PAYNE, Vice President and Associate Secretary FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Vice President ROBERT E. DOYLE, Vice President and Associate Secretary THOMAS M. BEERS, Associate Secretary Committee for Research and Exploration LEONARD CARMICHAEL, Chairman LYMAN J. BRIGGS ALEXANDER WETMORE Chairman Emeritus Vice Chairman Rear Adm. L. O . COLBERT Vice Adm. EMORY S. LAND MATTHEW W. STIRLING HUGH L. DRYDEN Research Associate A. REMINGTON KELLOGG Smithsonian Institution Director, U. S. National Museum WILLIAM E. WRATHER and the Senior Officers of the Society Board of Trustees GILBERT GROSVENOR, Chairman of the Board, formerly President, National Geographic Society, and Editor of its magazine (1899-1954) ROBERT B. ANDERSON Secretary of the Treasury, 1957-61 LYMAN J. BRIGGS Director Emeritus, National Bureau of Standards LEONARD CARMICHAEL Secretary, Smithsonian Institution L. O. COLBERT Rear Admiral, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Retired HUGH L. DRYDEN Deputy Administrator, National Aeronautics & Space Administration ROBERT V. FLEMING Chairman of the Board Riggs National Bank CRAWFORD H. GREENEWALT President, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR Editor, National Geographic ELISHA HANSON General Counsel National Geographic Society EMORY S. LAND Vice Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired, formerly President Air Transport Association CURTIS E. LEMAY Vice Chief of Staff, U. S. Air Force H. RANDOLPH MADDOX Vice President, American Tele phone & Telegraph Company (Ret.) BENJAMIN M. McKELWAY Editor, the Washington Star President, Associated Press THOMAS W. McKNEW Executive Vice President National Geographic Society WALTER K. MYERS, M.D. Physician MELVIN M. PAYNE Vice President National Geographic Society LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER Chairman of the Board, Rockefeller Brothers, Inc, and President Jackson Hole Preserve JUAN T. TRIPPE President, Pan American World Airways EARL WARREN Chief Justice of the United States ALEXANDER WETMORE Research Associate Smithsonian Institution LLOYD B. WILSON Honorary Board Chairman, Chesa peake & Potomac Telephone Co. CONRAD L. WIRTH Director, National Park Service U. S. Department of the Interior WILLIAM E. WRATHER Director, U. S . Geological Survey, Retired Asst. Secretaries: VERNON H. BREWSTER, WM. T. BELL, HERBERT T. HENDERSON, C. VERNON SANDERS, CHARLES P. BIXEL, OWEN R. ANDERSON. Asst. Treasurers: HILLEARY F. HOSKINSON, WM. H. McCAULEY. Assoc. Counsel: ARTHUR B. HANSON Herman J. A. C . Arens, Executive Assistant, Leonard J. Grant, Editorial Assistant, and Gail H. Carroll, Secretary to the President and Editor; Lenore Williams, Secretary to the Executive Vice President; Sibyl Peck, Assistant to the Chairman of the Board; Leon J. Canova, Administrative Assistant Copyright © 1961 National Geographic Society. All rights reserved. Reproduction or use of the whole or any part of the contents without written permission is prohibited. Printed in U. . A. Second-clas postage paid at Washington. D. C .. and at additional mailing offices. Cover design and title protected by international trademark. Articles and photographs are desired. For material used. generous remuneration is made. MELVILLE BELL GROSVENOR, Editor THOMAS W. McKNEW, Executive Vice President FREDERICK G. VOSBURGH, Associate Editor EDITORIAL STAFF Senior Assistant Editor. Franc Shor Assistant Editors: Robert L. Conly, Allan C. Fisher, Jr., John Scofield, Mason Sutherland Senior Staff Andrew H. Brown, Nathaniel T. Kenney, Luis Marden, Samuel W. Matthews, Kenneth F. Weaver, Paul A. Zahl (Natural Sciences) Issue Editor: Howell Walker Foreign Staff W. Robert Moore (Chief); Thomas J. Aber crombie, David S. Boyer, Walter Meayers Edwards, Kip Ross EditorialStaff Jules B. Billard, Robert T. Cochran, Jr., Rowe Findley, William P. E. Graves, Gilbert M. Gros venor, John R. Hoopes, Jay Johnston, Stuart E. Jones, Howard La Fay, Edward J. Linehan, Bart McDowell, Carolyn Bennett Patterson, James A. Reynolds, Peter T. White; Rose T. MacBryde, Winifred M. Myers (Assts.) Dorothy M. Corson (Indexes); Rosalie K. Miller (Central Files) EditorialLayout: Howard E. Paine School Service: Ralph Gray (Chief); Katherine Crapster, Arthur P. Miller, Jr., Frank Sartwell News Service: Windsor P. Booth (Chief); Lonnelle Aikman, Edward Cornish, Matt C. McDade Book Service: Merle Severy (Chief); Wayne Barrett, Robert M. McClung, Edwards Park EditorialResearch: Margaret G. Bledsoe (Chief); Ann K. Holcomb (Asst.), Werner Janney, Levenia Loder, Patricia Middlemas, Patricia Rosenberg GeographicResearch: George Crossette (Chief); Newton V. Blakeslee (Asst.), Louise F. Althoff Library: Esther Ann Manion (Librarian); Virginia Carter Hills (Asst.), Katharine P. O'Donnell ILLUSTRATIONS STAFF IllustrationsEditor: Herbert S. Wilburn, Jr. Art Editor: Andrew Poggenpohl Asst. Illus. Editors: Robert L. Breeden, W. E. Garrett, Robert E. Gilka, Mary S. Griswold, Thomas R. Smith, Charles Allmon (Incoming Photographs). Pictorial Re search: Geraldine Linder, Caro Stillwell (Librarian) Artists: Walter A. Weber (Naturalist), Peter V. Bianchi Directorof Photography:James M. Godbold; Joseph Baylor Roberts (Asst.) Photographers: B. Anthony Stewart (Chief); Dean Conger, John E. Fletcher, Bates Littlehales, Thomas Nebbia, Kath leen Revis, Robert F. Sisson, Volkmar Wentzel Photo Lab: Edwin L. Wisherd (Chief); Richard H. Stewart (Asst.), Milton Ford, Donald McBain, Guy Starling Engraving & Printing: Dee J. Andella, Joe M. Barlett CARTOGRAPHIC STAFF Chief Cartographer: James M. Darley Assistant Chief Cartographers:Newman Bumstead, Ralph E. McAleer Cartographers: John J. Brehm, Wellman Chamberlin, Richard Darley, Athos D. Grazzini, Apphia Holdstock, Victor J. Kelley, Walter K. Morrison, William T. Peele, Charles L. Stern, Catherine Hart (Asst.) CartographicArtists: Irvin E. Alleman, William Palmstrom SECRETARY'S STAFF Administrative: Thomas L. Hartman, M.D., Raymond T. McElligott, Jr., Stan Jennings, Charles F. Althoff. Accounting: F. Charles Brown, George F. Fogle, Martha K. Allen. Cashier: Frank S. Delk Statistics: Everett C. Brown. Costs: Sargent C. Elliott Procurement:John P. M. Johnston Payroll: Esther M. Lohrer, Marie S. Edwards MembershipFulfillment: Roy J. Klockenbrink Accounts Records: Della M. Hurt EUROPEAN OFFICE W. E. Roscher (Director) 161-166 Fleet Street, London E. C. 4, England ADVERTISING Director: John F. Connery; Regional Offices-New York: Harley L McDevitt; Chicago: Leslie R. Gage; San Francisco: Donald F. Mikkelsen; Los Angeles: Jack V. Sheehan 4 COVER: Feminine eyes admire a Grenadier Guards sentry outside the Tower of London (page 777).