National Geographic : 1961 Oct
stones from the Chellean living floors. We may, I think, be reasonably sure that these stone balls were used as a sort of bola weap on. Certainly without some such weapon, Chellean man would have been hard put to capture and kill the truly giant animals whose bones we find on his living floors. We may guess that Chellean man used the bola as it still is used in South America, hurling it at an animal to entangle the thongs around the beast's legs and hobble it so as to make a kill possible. Many of the bola stones that Chellean man used are immense in size, suggesting that the hunter must have been a huge and power ful type (painting, page 578). The new-found skull tells the same story, for it is of massive proportions. There is additional evidence in those two Chellean milk teeth we found in 1954, for as I have said, they were enormous compared to those of a modern child. Primitive Man Appreciated Color Chellean man thus emerges as a very pow erful being with considerable hunting skill, who was no longer restricted to the juvenile animals that Zinjanthropus had had to be content with. On the Chellean living floors we have found countless remains of such huge animals as the giant pig, the giant ant 584 lered giraffe, the giant sheep, and several oth er immense creatures. One final and fascinating fact we have un covered: Chellean man liked color. On one floor we found lumps of red ocher that could only have come from a distant source. Giant of Giants Comes to Light Last year was indeed a memorable one in the search for fossil man, but the animals have by no means been absent. First there was Jonathan's saber-toothed tiger, which caused great excitement. Then we found a giant species of the African swamp antelope called sitatunga, and a giant form of porcu pine. But of all the incredible animals that we unearthed last year, the most surprising was our dinotherium. Dinotherium is the name scientists give to a strange type of extinct elephant that had its tusks set in the lower jaw, but growing downward like those of a walrus. In modern elephants, of course, the tusks are set in the upper jaw and grow forward and upward. Science recognizes several stages in dino therium evolution. In East Africa, for exam ple, we once discovered the remains of a small dinotherium about the size of an ox in Lower Miocene deposits dating from about 25,000,000 years ago.